| Though the Portuguese came to this region in south central Africa in the 18th century, it was not until the mid-19th century that he Europeans turned their attention to the area. The arrival of merchants and missionaries, such as Cecil Rhodes and David Livingstone paved the way for the development of the country. By 1888, Rhodesia was made an official British sphere of influence; a protectorate was declared three years later. It was soon enlarged. In 1924, direct colonial rule was instituted, and British settlers began arriving in formidable numbers. Ranching, mining, agriculture all prospered. In 1953, Northern and Southern Rhodesia joined with Nyasaland in a federation. Significant unrest between the white colonials and the native peoples followed. The federation dissolved in 1962 and Northern Rhodesia was declared the independent Republic of Zambia in 1964.