< Economy of Ukraine


Economy of Ukraine


Doing Business in Kviv

Main Crops:
Grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, vegetables; beef, milk

Natural Resources:
Iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulfur, graphite, titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber .

Major Industries:
Coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food-processing (especially sugar)


After Russia, the Ukrainian Republic was the most important economic component of the former Soviet Union, producing about four times the output of the next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil accounted for more than one fourth of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities of meat, milk, grain, and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its diversified heavy industry supplied unique equipment such as large diameter pipes and vertical drilling apparatus, and raw materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the former USSR.
Shortly after independence in August 1991, the Ukrainian Government liberalized most prices and erected a legal framework for privatization, but widespread resistance to reform within the government and the legislature soon stalled reform efforts and led to some backtracking. Output by 1999 had fallen to less than 40% of the 1991 level. Outside institutions - particularly the IMF encouraged Ukraine to quicken the pace and scope of reforms to foster economic growth. Ukrainian Government officials eliminated most tax and customs privileges in a March 2005 budget law, bringing more economic activity out of Ukraine's large shadow economy. From 2000 until mid-2008, Ukraine's economy was buoyant despite political turmoil between the prime minister and president. The economy contracted nearly 15% in 2009, among the worst economic performances in the world. In April 2010, Ukraine negotiated a price discount on Russian gas imports in exchange for extending Russia's lease on its naval base in Crimea.

Ukraine's oligarch-dominated economy grew slowly from 2010 to 2013 but remained behind peers in the region and among Europe's poorest. After former President YANUKOVYCH fled the country during the Revolution of Dignity, Ukraine's economy fell into crisis because of Russia's annexation of Crimea, military conflict in the eastern part of the country, and a trade war with Russia, resulting in a 17% decline in GDP, inflation at nearly 60%, and dwindling foreign currency reserves. The international community began efforts to stabilize the Ukrainian economy, including a March 2014 IMF assistance package of $17.5 billion, of which Ukraine has received four disbursements, most recently in April 2017, bringing the total disbursed as of that date to approximately $8.4 billion. Ukraine has made progress on reforms designed to make the country prosperous, democratic, and transparent, including creation of a national anti-corruption agency, overhaul of the banking sector, establishment of a transparent VAT refund system, and increased transparency in government procurement. But more improvements are needed, including fighting corruption, developing capital markets, improving the business environment to attract foreign investment, privatizing state-owned enterprises, and land reform. The fifth tranche of the IMF program, valued at $1.9 billion, was delayed in mid-2017 due to lack of progress on outstanding reforms, including adjustment of gas tariffs to import parity levels and adoption of legislation establishing an independent anti-corruption court.

Russia's occupation of Crimea in March 2014 and ongoing Russian aggression in eastern Ukraine have hurt economic growth. With the loss of a major portion of Ukraine's heavy industry in Donbas and ongoing violence, the economy contracted by 6.6% in 2014 and by 9.8% in 2015, but it returned to low growth in in 2016 and 2017, reaching 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, as key reforms took hold. Ukraine also redirected trade activity towards the EU following the implementation of a bilateral Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, displacing Russia as its largest trading partner. A prohibition on commercial trade with separatist-controlled territories in early 2017 has not impacted Ukraine's key industrial sectors as much as expected, largely because of favorable external conditions. Ukraine returned to international debt markets in September 2017, issuing a $3 billion sovereign bond.


1990 2000 2010 2020
GNI, Atlas method (current US$) (billions) 83.36 33.6 139.03 149.19
GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) 1,610 700 2,980 3,540
GNI, PPP (current international $) (billions) 404.57 196.42 378.01 558.95
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) 7,470 3,980 8,120 13,260
GDP (current US$) (billions) 81.39 32.38 141.21 155.5
GDP growth (annual %) -6.3 5.9 4.1 -4
Inflation, GDP deflator (annual %) 16.2 27.5 13.7 9.8
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing, value added (% of GDP) 24 14 7 9
Industry (including construction), value added (% of GDP) 43 32 26 21
Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) 28 60 46 39
Imports of goods and services (% of GDP) 29 55 49 40
Gross capital formation (% of GDP) 26 20 18 8
Revenue, excluding grants (% of GDP) .. 25.9 33.2 31.9
Net lending (+) / net borrowing (-) (% of GDP) .. -0.6 -6.3 -1.7
States and markets
Time required to start a business (days) .. 41 28 7
Domestic credit provided by financial sector (% of GDP) .. .. 90.7 51.2
Tax revenue (% of GDP) .. 13.6 15 19.2
Military expenditure (% of GDP) 0.4 2.2 1.9 4.1
Mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) 0 1.7 117.8 129.3
Individuals using the Internet (% of population) 0 0.7 23.3 70.1
High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports) .. .. 5 6
Statistical Capacity Score (Overall Average) (scale 0 - 100) .. .. 88 72
Global links
Merchandise trade (% of GDP) 21 88 80 66
Net barter terms of trade index (2000 = 100) .. 100 102 84
External debt stocks, total (DOD, current US$) (millions) 551 13,915 124,527 129,899
Total debt service (% of exports of goods, services and primary income) .. 20.3 38.4 24.5
Net migration (thousands) 74 -165 132 50
Personal remittances, received (current US$) (millions) .. 419 6,535 15,213
Foreign direct investment, net inflows (BoP, current US$) (millions) 200 595 6,451 5,833
Net official development assistance received (current US$) (millions) .. .. 656.7 1,148.30