Nigeria Population >  



Nigeria has 250 to 400 or more recognized groups, many divided into subgroups of considerable social and political importance. Most important ethnolinguistic categories: Hausa and Fulani in north, Yoruba in southwest, and Igbo in southeast, all internally subdivided. Next major groups: Kanuri, Ibibio, Tiv, and Ijaw.

The number of languages in Nigeria is estimated at 350 to 400, many with dialects. Most important: Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo. Hausa major language in north. English official language used in government, large-scale business, mass media, and education beyond primary school.



country comparison to the world: 9
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2009 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 41.5% (male 31,624,050/female 30,242,637)
15-64 years: 55.5% (male 42,240,641/female 40,566,672)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 2,211,840/female 2,343,250) (2009 est.)

Median age:

total: 19 years
male: 18.9 years
female: 19.1 years (2009 est.)

Population growth rate:

1.999% (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 59

Birth rate:

36.65 births/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 30

Death rate:

16.56 deaths/1,000 population (July 2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 13

Net migration rate:

-0.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 93


urban population: 48% of total population (2008)
rate of urbanization: 3.8% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.94 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Infant mortality rate:

total: 94.35 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 13
male: 100.38 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 46.94 years
country comparison to the world: 212
male: 46.16 years
female: 47.76 years (2009 est.)

Total fertility rate:

4.91 children born/woman (2009 est.)

country comparison to the world: 32

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

3.1% (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

2.6 million (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

170,000 (2007 est.)

country comparison to the world: 3

Major infectious diseases:

degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: malaria and yellow fever
respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis
aerosolized dust or soil contact disease: one of the most highly endemic areas for Lassa fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis and shistosomiasis
animal contact disease: rabies
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2009)


noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian

Ethnic groups:

Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%


Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%


English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 8 years
male: 9 years
female: 7 years (2004)

Education expenditures:

0.9% of GDP (1991)

country comparison to the world: 180