Country name
conventional long form: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

conventional short form: Jordan

local long form: Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah

local short form: Al Urdun

former: Transjordan

etymology: named for the Jordan River, which makes up part of Jordan's northwest border

Government type
parliamentary constitutional monarchy

Capital
name: Amman

geographic coordinates: 31 57 N, 35 56 E

time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Friday in February; ends last Friday in October

etymology: in the 13th century B.C., the Ammonites named their main city "Rabbath Ammon"; "rabbath" designated "capital," so the name meant "The Capital of [the] Ammon[ites]"; over time, the "Rabbath" came to be dropped and the city became known simply as "Ammon" and then "Amman"

Administrative divisions
12 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); 'Ajlun, Al 'Aqabah, Al Balqa', Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Al ‘Asimah (Amman), At Tafilah, Az Zarqa', Irbid, Jarash, Ma'an, Madaba

Independence
25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)

National holiday
Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Constitution
history: previous 1928 (preindependence); latest initially adopted 28 November 1947, revised and ratified 1 January 1952

amendments: constitutional amendments require at least a two-thirds majority vote of both the Senate and the House and ratification by the king; no amendment of the constitution affecting the rights of the king and the succession to the throne is permitted during the regency period; amended several times, last in 2016

Legal system
mixed system developed from codes instituted by the Ottoman Empire (based on French law), British common law, and Islamic law

International law organization participation
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICC jurisdiction

Citizenship
citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Jordan

dual citizenship recognized: yes

residency requirement for naturalization: 15 years

Suffrage
18 years of age; universal

Executive branch
chief of state: King ABDALLAH II (since 7 February 1999); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HUSSEIN (eldest son of the monarch, born on 28 June 1994)

head of government: Prime Minister Bisher AL-KHASAWNEH (since 7 October 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch prime minister in consultation with the prime minister

elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch

Legislative branch
description: bicameral National Assembly or Majlis al-'Umma consists of:
Senate or the House of Notables or Majlis al-Ayan (65 seats; members appointed by the monarch to serve 4-year terms)
Chamber of Deputies or House of Representatives or Majlis al-Nuwaab (130 seats; 115 members directly elected in 23 multi-seat constituencies by open-list proportional representation vote and 15 seats for women; 12 of the 115 seats reserved for Christian, Chechen, and Circassian candidates; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Senate - last appointments on 27 Sep 2020 (next appointments in 2024)
Chamber of Deputies - last held on 10 November 2020 (next to be held in November 2024)

election results: Senate - composition men 58, women 7, percent of women 10.8%
Chamber of Deputies - note - tribal, centrist, and pro-government candidates dominated in the 130-seat election; the Islamic Action Front, the political wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, garnered only 10 seats, down from 15 in the previous election; women, who are guaranteed 15 seats by Jordan’s legislative quota system, won 16 seats, down from 20 seats won in the previous election; composition - men 114, women 16, percent of women 12.3%; note - total National Assembly percent of women 11.8%

Judicial branch
highest courts: Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of 15 members, including the chief justice); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the king; other judges nominated by the Judicial Council, an 11-member judicial policymaking body consisting of high-level judicial officials and judges, and approved by the king; judge tenure generally not limited; Constitutional Court members appointed by the king for 6-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 2 years

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Great Felonies Court; religious courts; military courts; juvenile courts; Land Settlement Courts; Income Tax Court; Higher Administrative Court; Customs Court; special courts including the State Security Court

Political parties and leaders
Jordan has 54 registered political parties, four of which currently have seats in the elected Chamber of Deputies including the Islamic Action Front, the Islamic Centrist Party, the United Jordanian Front Party, and the National Loyalty Party