Government type

federal presidential republic
Capital

name: Moroni

 

etymology: Moroni derives from "mroni," which means "at the river" in Shingazidja, the Comorian language spoken on Grande Comore (N'gazidja)
Administrative divisions

3 islands; Anjouan (Ndzuwani), Grande Comore (N'gazidja), Moheli (Mwali)
Independence

6 July 1975 (from France)
National holiday

Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Constitution

history: previous 1996, 2001; newest adopted 30 July 2018

amendments: proposed by the president of the union or supported by at least one third of the Assembly of the Union membership; adoption requires approval by at three-quarters majority of the total Assembly membership or approval in a referendum

note: a referendum held on 30 July 2018 - boycotted by the opposition - overwhelmingly approved a new constitution that allows for 2 consecutive 5-year presidential terms and revises the rotating presidency within the islands
Legal system

mixed legal system of Islamic religious law, the French civil code of 1975, and customary law
International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
Citizenship

citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of the Comoros

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
Suffrage

18 years of age; universal
Executive branch

chief of state: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; note - AZALI takes oath of office 2 June 2019 after 24 March 2019 reelection (2019)

head of government: President AZALI Assoumani (since 26 May 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president

elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote in 2 rounds for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 March 2019 (next to be held in 2024)

election results: AZALI Assoumani (CRC) elected president in first round; with a 59% of the vote; - AZALI Assoumani (CRC) 60.8%, Ahamada MAHAMOUDOU (PJ) 14.6%, and Mouigni Baraka Said SOILIHI (Independent) 5.6%
Legislative branch

description: unicameral Assembly of the Union (33 seats; 24 members directly elected by absolute majority vote in 2 rounds if needed and 9 members indirectly elected by the 3 island assemblies; members serve 5-year terms) (2017)

elections: last held on 19 January 2020 with a runoff on 23 February 2020 (next to be held in 2025) (2020)

election results: seats by party -1st round - Boycotting parties 16, Independent 3, CRC 2, RDC 2, RADHI 1, Orange party 0; note - 9 additional seats filled by the 3 island assemblies; 2nd round - CRC 20, Orange Party 2, Independents 2; composition as of 23 January 2020 men 20, women 4, percent of women 16.7%

(2019)
Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 7 judges)

judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges - selection and term of office NA

subordinate courts: Court of Appeals (in Moroni); Tribunal de premiere instance; island village (community) courts; religious courts


Political parties and leaders

Convention for the Renewal of the Comoros or CRC [AZALI Assoumani]
Democratic Rally of the Comoros or RDC [Mouigni BARAKA]
Independent Party [N/A]
Juwa Party or PJ [[Ahmed Abdallah SAMBI, Mahamoudou AHAMADA]
Orange Party [Mohamed DAOUDOU]
Party for the Comorian Agreement (Partie Pour l'Entente Commorienne) or PEC [Fahmi Said IBRAHIM]
Rally for an Alternative of Harmonious and Integrated Development or RADHI [Houmed MSAIDIE, Abdou SOEFO]
Rally with a Development Initiative for Enlightened Youth or RIDJA [Said LARIFOU]
Union for the Development of the Comoros or UPDC [Mohamed HALIFA] (2018)