Panama

People

The culture, customs, and language of the Panamanians are predominantly Caribbean Spanish. Ethnically, the majority of the population is mestizo (mixed Spanish and Indian) or mixed Spanish, Indian, Chinese, and West Indian. Spanish is the official and dominant language; English is a common second language spoken by the West Indians and by many in business and the professions. More than half the population lives in the Panama City-Colon metropolitan corridor.

 

1990 2000 2010 2016
Population, total (millions) 2.47 3.03 3.64 4.03
Population growth (annual %) 2.1 2 1.8 1.6
Surface area (sq. km) (thousands) 75.4 75.4 75.4 75.4
Population density (people per sq. km of land area) 33.2 40.8 49 54.3
Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population) .. 37.9 33.8 22.1
Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) 21.9 12.4 4.5 2.2
GNI, Atlas method (current US$) (billions) 6.56 11.85 26.05 48.37
GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) 2,660 3,910 7,150 11,990
GNI, PPP (current international $) (billions) 12.12 24.52 50.68 81.31
GNI per capita, PPP (current international $) 4,900 8,090 13,910 20,160
People
Income share held by lowest 20% 1.2 2.1 3.3 3.3
Life expectancy at birth, total (years) 73 75 77 78
Fertility rate, total (births per woman) 3.1 2.7 2.6 2.5
Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19) 100 91 87 83
Contraceptive prevalence, any methods (% of women ages 15-49) .. .. 52 63
Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total) 86 91 93 94
Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births) 31 26 20 16
Prevalence of underweight, weight for age (% of children under 5) .. 5.1 3.9 ..
Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months) 73 97 97 90
Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group) 81 92 94 97
School enrollment, primary (% gross) 100.7 105.7 105.1 96
School enrollment, secondary (% gross) 59 65 71 76
School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI) 1 1 1 1
Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49) 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.8
Environment
Forest area (sq. km) (thousands) 50.4 48.7 47 46.2
Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area) 4.1 4.4 .. 5.2
Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal resources) .. .. 0.8 0.8
Urban population growth (annual %) 2.9 3.2 2.2 2.1
Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita) 603 848 991 1,079
CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita) 1.12 1.91 2.52 2.25
Electric power consumption (kWh per capita) 833 1,267 1,745 2,063