One of the surviving vestiges of the once mighty Holy Roman Empire, Luxembourg shared a monarchy with the Netherlands after the empire was dissolved in 1806. This arrangement ended with the death of William III in 1890. Adolf of Nassau became the Grand Duke of Luxembourg, while Wilhelmina ascended to the throne of the Netherlands. Luxembourg has enjoyed an excellent, balanced economy since the 19th century based on both industry and agriculture. During the first World War, the country fell to Germany. The Nazis came in 1940, but Archduchess Charlotte escaped to London, returning with the liberating Allied troops in 1944. There has been complete political stability since then. Luxembourg was a founding member of the EEC. Its enormous and highly developed banking industry is the foundation of the country's economy. In 1999 it joined the euro currency zone.