The people of Indonesia are Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, and other 3% (2000)
Javanese 40.1%, Sundanese 15.5%, Malay 3.7%, Batak 3.6%, Madurese 3%, Betawi 2.9%, Minangkabau 2.7%, Buginese 2.7%, Bantenese 2%, Banjarese 1.7%, Balinese 1.7%, Acehnese 1.4%, Dayak 1.4%, Sasak 1.3%, Chinese 1.2%, other 15% (2010 est.)
Indonesia has the world’s fourth-largest population. It is predominantly Muslim and has the largest Muslim population of any country in the world. The population is projected to increase to as much as 320 million by 2045. A government-supported family planning program. The total fertility rate (TFR) – the average number of births per woman – from 5.6 in the mid-1960s to 2.7 in the mid-1990s. The success of the program was also due to the social acceptance of family planning, which received backing from influential Muslim leaders and organizations.
The fertility decline slowed in the late 1990’s when responsibility for family planning programs shifted to the district level, where the programs were not prioritized. Since 2012 the national government revitalized the national family planning program, and Indonesia’s TFR has slowly decreased to 2.3 in 2020. The government may reach its goal of achieving replacement level fertility – 2.1 children per woman – but the large number of women of childbearing age ensures significant population growth for many years.
Indonesia is a source country for labor migrants, a transit country for asylum seekers, and a destination mainly for highly skilled migrant workers. International labor migration, both legal and illegal, from Indonesia to other parts of Asia (most commonly Malaysia) and the Middle East has taken place for decades because of high unemployment and underemployment, poverty, and low wages domestically. Increasing numbers of migrant workers are drawn to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US. The majority of Indonesian labor migration is temporary and consists predominantly of low-skilled workers, mainly women working as domestics.
Indonesia’s strategic location between Asia and Australia and between the Pacific and Indian Oceans – and its relatively easy accessibility via boat – appeal to asylum seekers. It is also an attractive transit location because of its easy entry requirements and the ability to continue on to Australia. Recent asylum seekers have come from Afghanistan, Burma (Rohingyas), Iraq, Somalia, and Sri Lanka. Since 2013, when Australia tightening its immigration policy, thousands of migrants and asylum seekers have been stranded in Indonesia, where they live in precarious conditions and receive only limited support from international organizations. The situation for refugees in Indonesia has also worsened because Australia and the US, which had resettled the majority of refugees in Indonesia, have significantly lowered their intake.
|Population, total (millions)||181.41||211.51||241.83||273.52|
|Population growth (annual %)||1.8||1.4||1.3||1.1|
|Surface area (sq. km) (thousands)||1,910.90||1,910.90||1,910.90||1,916.90|
|Population density (people per sq. km of land area)||100.1||116.8||133.5||145.7|
|Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population)||..||19.1||13.3||9.8|
|Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population)||54.9||34.9||13.3||2.3|
|Income share held by lowest 20%||9||9.6||7.6||7.2|
|Life expectancy at birth, total (years)||62||66||69||72|
|Fertility rate, total (births per woman)||3.1||2.5||2.5||2.3|
|Adolescent fertility rate (births per 1,000 women ages 15-19)||67||50||51||46|
|Contraceptive prevalence, any method (% of married women ages 15-49)||50||55||61||64|
|Births attended by skilled health staff (% of total)||41||67||82||95|
|Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)||84||52||34||23|
|Prevalence of underweight, weight for age (% of children under 5)||31||24.8||18.6||17.7|
|Immunization, measles (% of children ages 12-23 months)||58||76||78||76|
|Primary completion rate, total (% of relevant age group)||93||94||101||102|
|School enrollment, primary (% gross)||114.3||108.8||109.2||106.4|
|School enrollment, secondary (% gross)||47||55||76||89|
|School enrollment, primary and secondary (gross), gender parity index (GPI)||1||1||1||1|
|Prevalence of HIV, total (% of population ages 15-49)||0.1||0.1||0.3||0.4|
|Forest area (sq. km) (thousands)||1,185.50||1,012.80||996.6||921.3|
|Terrestrial and marine protected areas (% of total territorial area)||..||..||..||5.3|
|Annual freshwater withdrawals, total (% of internal resources)||4.1||6.3||9.7||11|
|Urban population growth (annual %)||4.9||4.3||2.9||2.2|
|Energy use (kg of oil equivalent per capita)||544||736||877||..|
|CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita)||0.82||1.32||1.72||2.18|
|Electric power consumption (kWh per capita)||163||390||636||1,084|