Mycenaean civilization began about 1650 B.C. when the city of Mycenae was established.  Along with Mycenae, a number of additional cities  such as Tiryns, Pylos, Thebes and Orchomenos were established and formed a loose coalition.  The Mycenaeans traded peacefully with the Minoans for a period of time.  Around 1450 B.C., the Mycenaeans attacked the Minoans and captured Crete, destroying many Minoan palaces and taking possession of the Knossos.  Mycenaeans took over the Minoan trade routes.  Homer's Iliad tells the story of the Mycenaean attack on the city of Troy.    In 1190 B.C., Mycenae was torched by attackers and was permanently abandoned in 1100 B.C.