World History 600-700 AD

Kingdom of Funan And Chenla, Shotoku's Reforms, T'ang Dynasty, Forced To Flee Mecca, Battle Of Nineveh, Mecca Falls, First Islamic Caliphate, Omar I- Sword Of God, Persians Defeated, Jerusalem Surrendered, Rois Faineats, Arabs Conquer Egypt, Omar I Assassinated, Battle Of The Camels, Kingdom of Silla, Ali Assassinated, Arabs Dont Capture Constantinople, Battle Of Karbala, Bulgarian Empire, Malik I,Muhammed

600 AD Kingdom of Funan And Chenla-The Cambodian Kingdom of Funan was taken over by the Northern Kingdom of Chenla.
604 AD Shotoku's Reforms- Between 593 and 628 Empress Suiko ruled Japan. During her reign, the prime mover behind the throne was Prince Shotoku. In 604, Shotoku issued a seventeen-article "Constitution". It called for a strong central government in Japan, based on the Chinese model. Some of Shotoku's reforms were implemented leading to a more centralized Japanese government.
618 AD T'ang Dynasty Founded- The T'ang Dynasty was founded in 618 by Li Yuan and his son Li Shih-min. The T'angs dynasty used Loyang and Ch'ang-an as eastern and western capitals. The basic administrative organization of the Tang dynasty would guide China until the 20th century.
622 AD Forced To Flee Mecca -The town elders of Mecca initially opposed the teachings of Mohammed. They forced him to flee to Medina. His flight became known as the Hegira.
627 AD Battle Of Nineveh At the battle of Nineveh, the forces of Heraclius (the Byzantine Emperor), defeated the forces of the Sassanid Empire. The Persian forces were led by Khosrau II. The victory saved the Byzantine Empire from further Persian attack.
630 AD Mecca Falls - Muhammad- Muhammed organized the commonwealth of Islam in and around Mecca. A series of battles was fought between Mecca and Medina. Under the Treaty of Hudaybiya, Muhammad's followers were finally given the right to undertake pilgrimages to Mecca. But when this right was denied them, they took control of the city.
632 AD First Islamic Caliphate- Muhammed died in 632 A.D. Abu Bakr became the first Caliph or 'agent of the prophet'. He brings rebellious Arab tribes under control.
634 AD Omar I- Sword Of God- Abu Bakr dies after ruling as Caliph for only two years. He is succeeded by Omar, who is given the name 'sword of God' for his many military exploits in expanding Muslim rule. His first target will be Syria.
635 AD Persians Defeated- Under Omar, the Arabs begin a series of campaigns against the Persian Empire. They first lose to the Persians at the Battle of the Bridge, only to defeat the Persians in 635 at Tel Buwayb. Omar goes on to win a series of battles. The Battle of Nehawand in central Persia completed his conquest of the Persian Empire in 642.
637 AD Jerusalem Surrendered- Omar began a campaign against the Byzantines. The Arab forces defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Yarmuk. The Arabs took Damascus and Emessa. In 638 Jerusalem surrendered to Omar's forces. Ceasaria and Aleppo were soon taken as well.
639 AD Rois Faineats- Dagobert was the last strong king of the Frankish Kingdom. With his death, royal power declined. In its place, arose a period of feudal decentralization. Land and power were more strongly concentrated in the aristocracy. There was a breakdown of state power which became decentralized in the hands of local officials who ruled with nearly complete independence.
642 AD Arabs Conquer Egypt- Arab forces under the command of Amir ibn al-As attacked Egypt. In 642, under terms arranged by Cyrus, Patriarch of Alexandria, Egypt surrendered. Terms of the agreement included guaranteed security for people and property, as well as freedom of religion. All this was to be obtained in return for the payment of tribute.
644 AD Omar I Assassinated- Omar I was assassinated in a mosque of Medina. His assassin was a Persian slave of a provincial governor. Omar was seceded by Othman from the Omayyad clan.
656 AD Battle Of The Camels- Othman was assassinated in Medina. He was succeeded by Muhammed's nephew and son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib. The succession is disputed by Aisha, Muhammmad's widow, on behalf of the Omayyad clan. Ali defeats the rebels at the Battle of the Camels.
660 AD Kingdom of Silla (Korea)- The Kingdom of Silla, on the Korean peninsula, conquered the Paekchke Kingdom. It then went on to capture the Koguryu Kingdom. These conquests brought about the first unification of the Korean Peninsula.
661 AD Ali Assassinated- Ali was assassinated in a mosque in Kufah. His assassin was a former supporter who became a Kharajite critic of Ali. Ali was succeeded by Muawiya who founded the Omayyad caliphate.
673 - 678 Ad Arab Forces Fail To Capture Constantinople- From 673-678 A.D., Arab forces besieged Constantinople. The siege failed due to both the strength of the city walls and a new invention- "the Greek Fire" which caused havoc among the Arab fleet. In 678 A.D., a 30-year peace treaty was negotiated.
680 AD Battle Of Karbala- The Caliph Muawiya died in Damascus after an 18-year reign. His son Yazid succeeded him. Yazid's succession is contested by the Kufans, who invited al-Husain, the son of Ali, to be the new caliph. When al-Husain arrived from Mecca, a battle took place at Karbala. Al-Husain was killed, becoming a martyr for Shi'ite Muslims.
680 - 1018 AD First Bulgarian Empire- The first Bulgarian Empire was created when the Bulgars defeated the Byzantines. They then went on to occupy the area between the Danube and the Balkan Mountains. The Bulgarian Empire was in constant conflict with the Byzantine Empire. In 1018, the Bulgars submitted to the Byzantines and became part of the Byzantine Empire.
685 AD Malik I- Malik I (Abd-al-Malik ibn Rarawn) became the new caliph. He ended decades of regional strife, instituting a postal service and replacing the Roman and Greek coins used in the empire with Arabian ones.