War Spreads to Cambodia, Biafra Capitulates- Ending Civil War, Four Killed at Kent State, Salvador Allende becomes President, Aswan Dam, India Invades Pakistan, Communist China Joins UN, Idi Amin Seizes Power in Uganda
|1970 War in Vietnam Spreads to Cambodia In 1969, large numbers of North Vietnamese troops entered Cambodia. In March 1970, the Cambodian government requested their removal. Premier Lon Nol took control of the government while Prince Sihanouk was in Peking (March 18) and pledged to force the removal of the Vietnamese troops. Initially, the Vietnamese agreed to withdraw, but then announced their support for Sihanouk, who had promised to fight the new government.
On April 30, President Nixon announced that US troops would join with South Vietnamese troops to invade the border area of Cambodia and eliminate Communist sanctuaries. He also pledged that all US troops would be out by the end of June. Meanwhile, Communist forces advanced on Phnom Penh.
|1970 Biafra Capitulates, Ending Civil War Civil war in Nigeria lasted for three years. Most countries in Africa supported the central government since all feared a similar breakup in their own countries. The British, Italians and the Soviet Union supplied the central government with arms, while the French supplied limited quantities of arms to the Biafrans. The Biafrans held their own in the war, until the end of 1969, when the superior fire power of the central government overwhelmed them. On January 13th, Biafran forces surrendered.|
|1970 Four Killed at Kent State American generals had always wanted the authority to attack Vietnamese sanctuaries in Cambodia. President Johnson had resisted their requests. Finally, in March 1970, after a change of government in Cambodia and after the North Vietnamese began attacking Cambodian forces, Nixon approved a massive incursion into Cambodia.
Nixon went on national television on April 30. He announced that the invasion was for a limited period, and was to save American lives, and claimed that American forces would not advance more than 21 miles into Cambodia.
American campuses erupted in protest. At Kent State University, in Ohio, National Guardsmen killed four unarmed protesters.
|1970 Salvador Allende becomes President of Chile Salvador Allende Gossens was elected President of Chile in 1970. Allende was the first Marxist ever elected in free elections. He immediately established diplomatic relations with Cuba and China, and nationalized a number of U.S.- owned companies.|
|1970 Aswan Dam finished The Aswan Dam was completed in Egypt in 1970. The dam is 364 feet high and 121,565 feet long. It dammed the Nile River on Upper Colorado.|
|1970 India Invades Pakistan In December 1970, elections were held in Pakistan. In Eastern Pakistan, the Awami League, led by Mujibur Rahman, won 160 out of 162 seats in the Parliament. The Awami League demanded complete internal autonomy for East Pakistan. Pakistani leader, Ali Bhutto, refused this demand. The Pakistani government resorted to violence to suppress the Awamis, and hundreds of thousands were slaughtered. The Awami leadership fled to India along with millions of refugees and declared the independent state of Bangladesh.
The Indians gave the declaration full support and helped to equip a guerrilla army. Pakistan reacted by launching a surprise attack on Indian air bases. The attack failed, and India responded with a full-scale attack on East Pakistan, routing the Pakistani army. Pakistan was forced to accept the creation of a separate state of Bangladesh in the former eastern province of Pakistan.
|1971 Communist China Joins UN, Replacing Taiwan On October 25, the U.N. approved the membership of Communist China, thereby replacing Taiwan. For the first time, the United States did not use its veto power to block mainland China's admission. The change in US position came about as the result of a gradual thaw in US– Chinese relations. The US trade embargo was lifted, and a US table tennis team made the first semi-official visit to mainland China in twenty years.|
|1971 Idi Amin Seizes Power in Uganda In January, while the Ugandan President Milton Obote was out of the country, Colonel Idi Amin staged a coup to oust the President. Amin soon began a reign of terror under which hundreds of thousands of Ugandans were killed.|