World History 1962


Malaysia Federation, Border War between China and India, Burundi Independent, Uganda Gains Independence, Adolf Eichman Guilty, Algeria Independent, Steel Prices Reduced, US Commits to Vietnam, Prayer Uncon. in Schools, Environment Movement, First Black at University of Mississpi, American in Space, Cuban Missile Crisis, Last Bendix Race, Telstar Broadcast

1962 Agreement Establishes Malaysia Federation An agreement was reached on the establishment of a Malaysian federation comprising Malaysia, Singapore, Sarawak, Brunei and British Borneo. The agreement was signed in London, and was to go into effect on September 16, 1963.
1962 Border War between China and India China and India disputed their mutual border. The terrain was mountainous and often difficult to defend. In 1962, battles broke out between the two countries. On October 20, China launched a full scale attack on Indian positions. The Chinese routed the Indians, and India asked for US support. Two days later, the Chinese announced that they were implementing a cease-fire and withdrawing.
1962 Burundi Becomes Independent Burundi was a part of Belgian Mandated Territory. It petitioned the U.N. for full independence, which was granted in 1962. Burundi remained under the domination of the Tutsi tribe.
1962 Uganda Gains Independence From Great Britian Upon Uganda's achieving independence, Milton Obote became the first leader. A federal form of government was enacted in order to insure the rights of the King of Uganda, Edward Mutesa.
1962 Israel Finds Adolf Eichman Guilty Adolf Eichmann was in charge of the Jewish Department of the Nazi SS (Gestapo). As such, he was directly responsible for carrying out the Nazi's "final solution" - the extermination of European Jewry.

After World War II, Eichmann fled to South America. In May 1960, Eichmann was captured by Israel's Intelligence Agency (the Mossad), smuggled out of Argentina and brought to Israel to stand trial.

Eichmann's trial began on April 11, 1961, at Binyanei Ha Uma, in Jerusalem. A special bullet-proof cage was built for Eichmann's protection. After a 14-week trial, Eichmann was convicted and sentenced to die for crimes against humanity.

After his appeal was denied, Eichmann was executed on May 31, 1962, making him the only person ever officially executed by the State of Israel.
1962 Algeria Granted Independence Algerian Nationalists, organized in the FLN (Front de Libération Nationale), began an armed rebellion against French rule in Algeria. The rebellion gained momentum throughout the 1950's. After DeGaulle became President of France in 1959, he offered Algeria the option of a referendum to determine whether the people wanted independence from France. Cease-fire negotiations began between the government and the FLN.

French Nationalists attempted to derail the peace process, staging two revolts in Algeria: the first in 1960, and the second in 1961. The revolt by the OAS (Organization de L'Armée Secrete) was suppressed in a few days, but the OAS continued to oppose the independence of Algeria until the bitter end.

On July 1, Algerians voted overwhelmingly for independence. On July 3, Algeria declared its independence. In September, Be Bella became Premier.
1962 Steel Prices Rolled Back The steel industry voluntarily rolled back its prices. It did this after President Kennedy exerted both public and private pressure to do so. He stated publicly that it was unacceptable for a tiny handful of steel executives to show utter contempt for the American people.
1962 US Commitment to Vietnam Deepens The US commitment to Vietnam grew in early 1962 as troop strength was increased to 8,000 men. President Kennedy gave the order to US troops to fire on the Viet Cong if they encountered hostile fire themselves.
1962 Prayer Unconstitutional in School In the decision of Engel v. Vitale, the US Supreme Court ruled that state-sponsored prayer in schools was unconstitutional. The Court did not outlaw prayer in school entirely, only school-sponsored prayer. The Supreme Court decision launched a controversy that has continued unabated until today.
1962 Environment Movement Launched Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring, was published in September 1962. By describing the effects of the use of pesticides and other chemicals on the enviroment, Carson launched the enviromental movement.
1962 First Black at University of Mississpi Supreme Court Justice Hugo Black ordered the immediate admittance of James Meredith to the University of Mississippi. Mississippi's governor, Ross Barnett, attempted to bar Meredith's entry. President Kennedy, however, federalized the National Guard, which then forced his admittance.
1962 First American in Space On July 21, Alan Shepard became the first American in space. Shepard's flight lasted only 15 minutes. Earlier in the year, President Kennedy had announced the goal of landing a man on the moon by the end of the decade, and on February 20, 1962, John Glenn became the first American to go into orbit.
1962 Cuban Missile Crisis In late August, 1962, American spy planes detected the building of missile sights in Cuba. Initially the government believed that these sites were defensive in nature. In fact, the Soviets, under Khrushchev, had decided to redress the strategic gap between the two world powers in one quick swoop by placing missiles in Cuba, thus providing the US with a very limited warning if attacked.

On October 15th, US intelligence brought the President conclusive proof that the Soviets were installing medium-range ballistic missiles in Cuba. After much discussion with his advisors, Kennedy ruled out an early air-strike as too risky, and instead decided on a blockade of Cuba.

On the evening of October 22nd President Kennedy addressed the nation, announcing the discovery of missiles in Cuba and the imposition of a blockade on all Soviet ships attempting to deliver weapons to Cuba. The US made it clear that it would fire on Soviet ships which did not observe the "quarantine."

Many felt that nuclear war was imminent. Suddenly, those Soviet ships en route to Cuba reversed course.

The affair was officially resolved when the United States agreed not to invade Cuba, and the Soviets agreed to withdraw their forces and missiles from Cuba. The event was a serious setback for the Soviets. Their strategic weakness forced them to withdraw from what had been a very risky venture.
1962 Last Bendix Race Won by B- 58 The end of an era was reached when the B-58 won the last Bendix race. The race, that had been held for nearly 30 years, symbolized man's continued striving for a faster aircraft. That striving ended in the 1960s. In fact, one of the aircraft designed in the early 1960s, the SR-71, is still in service, and still holds the world aircraft speed record.
1962 Telstar Broadcast Live Satellite The first international satellite broadcast of television took place. Satellite TV communication slowly tranformed the way the world received news information.