Treaty of Brest Litovsk, Battle of Marne, Battle Argonne Forest, German Army Mutinies,, Wilson Announces 14 Point Plan, Poland Independent, US Intervenes in Russia, Czechoslavakia Independent, Armistice Signed,Air Mail Service, Versailles Peace Conference, Treaty of Saint-Germain, White Russian Army Defeated, Seaplanes Cross Atlantic, British- Afghan War Erupts, Massacre in Amritsar Erupts, Russo-Polished War, Mohandas Gandhi,
|1918 Treaty of Brest Litovsk -A treaty was signed between the central powers (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) and the Soviet government. Under the terms of the agreement, Russia lost Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, most of Byelorussia and Russian Poland. The treaty was annulled under the terms of the German armistice.|
|1918 Battle of Marne -The battle of Marme was a massive attempt by the Germans to breakthrough on the West before American forces could arrive in large numbers. The Germans captured 1,200 square mile of territory, 90,000 prisoners and vast stores of weapons in the course of the offensive. The German offens eventually became bogged down by early August. By then, tens of thousands of fresh American troops were arriving almost daily to reinforce an exhausted Allied army.|
|1918 Battle Argonne Forest -On September 26th, Allied troops now took the offensive, under the command of General Foch. Thanks to the presence of a million American soldiers in France by this time, the Allies made slow, but steady, progress. The German high command warned that it could no longer ensure victory and, as the German army began mutinying, it sued for peace.|
|1918 German Army Mutinies, Wilhelm II Abdicates, War Ends -On October 28th, the German fleet mutinied in Kiel. Eventually, the mutiny spread throughout the German Armed Forces. Kaiser Wilhelm was told by General Hindenberg that the loyalty of the army could no longer be guaranteed. Wilhelm abdicated and fled to Holland. Phillip Scheidemann, the Socialist leader, declared Germany a Republic. The Allies then imposed a harsh armistice on the vanquished Germans.|
|1918 Wilson Announces 14 Point Plan-(1/8/18) U.S. President Woodrow Wilson put forth fourteen points that he believed could be the basis for a settlement of the Great War.
The Points were:
No secret diplomacy; freedom of the Seas; no international barriers to trade; reduction in armaments; adjustment of colonial disputes; evacuation of Russian territory with self-determination; evacuation and restoration of Belgian sovereignty; restoration of French sovereignty; adjustment of the Italian frontiers; autonomy for the population of Austria- Hungary; evacuation and restoration of the Balkan nations and peoples; the internationalization of the Dardanelles; independence for Poland with guaranteed access to the sea; and creation of a League of Nations.
|1918 Poland Declared Independent-(10/6/18) Poland declared its independence on October 6, 1918. Jozef Pilsudski, who was released from a German prison, was named Poland's leader.|
|1918 US Intervenes in Russia-The United States took a limited role in the international force that intervened in the Russian Civil War. The stated purpose of the intervention was to insure that Russian arms did not fall into German hands, and to provide the means for trapped allied troops to escape.|
|1918 Czechoslavakia Declared Independent - (10/28/18)The Prague National Council declared its independence from Austria-Hungary on October 28, 1918. Czechoslovakia declared its independence as a new nation and was recognized rapidly by France, Great Britain and the United States. Tomas Masaryk was elected the first president of the nation.|
|1918 Armistice Signed In Europe-(11/11/18) On November 11th, an armistice was signed, bringing the war in Europe to a conclusion. Five million allies and 3.4 million members of the central powers were killed in the conflict. Of that total, 50,585 Americans were killed in the war.|
|1918 Air Mail Service Begun-(5/15/118) The US Post Office began the first regularly-scheduled air mail service on May 15th, between New York and Washington. The first flight was made by Lieutenant George Boyle, who started the service inauspiciously by following the wrong tracks -- heading south instead of north to New York.|
|1919 Versailles Peace Conference -On June 29, 1919, the Treaty of Versailles was signed, thereby officially ending World War I. Under the treaty's terms, Germany was forced to cede substantial territories, including Alsace-Lorraine. West Prussia was given to Poland, and the Polish "corridor to the sea" was created. The Saar, a coal-rich territory, was put under French control for 15 years, and the Rhineland was to be occupied by the Allies for 15 years, and then permanently demilitarized. Germany was to maintain an army no larger than 100,000 men, with no air force, and a navy of 6 ships. Germany was also forced to pay reparations of 20 billion marks. Lastly, the League of Nations was created.
The peace of Versailles bore little resemblance to Wilson's "Fourteen Points." Wilson was committed to a relatively mild agreement, but Britain and, even more so, France under Clemenceau demanded the harsh terms that were imposed on Germany.
|1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain - (10/10/19)The Treaty of Saint-Germain brought to an end the state of war between Austria and the Allied powers.
Under its terms, Austria's boundaries were established. The treaty forbade the unification of Austria and Germany, and forced Austria to recognize the independence of former parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
|1919 White Russian Army Defeated -(12/24/19) The Communist government faced civil war in opposition to its rule. Called the "White Russians," the pro-Czarist forces consisted of three armies, each attempting to advance on Petrograd and Moscow. The White Army initially made rapid progress; however, Leon Trotsky soon turned the government's "Red" Army into a well-trained force, and succeeded in leading it to victory. French, English, Japanese and US troops landed in Siberia, ostensibly to stop Russian supplies from falling into German hands. The Allies helped the White Russians; but pulled out as the White Army collapsed.|
|1919 Russo-Polish War -(4/19) Poland invaded Russia in April, after demanding a return to the boundaries of 1772. The Poles were intially very successful, capturing Kiev and much of the Ukraine. The Soviets counterattacked, driving off the Poles and advancing toward Warsaw. The Poles, however, received vigorous aid from the French, and were able to repulse the Soviets. Under the Treaty of Riga, the final frontiers between Poland and the Soviet Union were set.|
|1919 Massacre in Amritsar Erupts -(4/13/19) The British instituted the anti-sedition Rowlatt Acts, which gave the government the power to intern agitators without trial. Mohandas Gandhi called for a day of work stoppages and fasting throughout India. This call, however, led to demonstrations and rioting. On April 13th, British General Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to open fire on demonstrators at Amritsar in the Punjab of India. Three hundred and seventy-nine people were killed and nearly twelve-hundred were wounded. This marked a turning point for anti-British sentiments in India. From this point, public sympathy was firmly with the Nationalists who were demanding independence.|
|1919 British- Afghan War Erupts - Afghanistan had remained neutral during World War I. There was, however, growing anti-British feeling in Afghanistan. This was fueled by the refusal of the British to recognize the complete independence of Afghanistan. Afghan ruler, Amanullah Khan, proclaimed a religious war against the British and called upon the Moslem subjects of India to rise up. He led a small-scale invasion of India, but it soon petered out. The British and the Afghans entered into negotiations and, for the first time, Britain recognized the full independence of Afghanistan.|
|1919 US Seaplanes Cross The Atlantic -(6/14/19) A US Navy Curtiss Seaplane landed in Lisbon. This was the first crossing of the Atlantic. The Navy plane, one of four to set out, made many stops along the way to Lisbon. The US Navy deployed a large armada of ships to support the crossing.|