World History 1840-1850 AD

1842 Two Major Orchestras Founded - The New York Philharmonic Society and the Vienna Philharmonic were both founded in 1842.
1842 British Massacred in Afghanistan A revolt against the British in Kabul forced them to agree to withdraw from the city and return to India. They did so under a safe conduct agreement. The Afghans instead attacked the British and massacred 4,500 soldiers and 12,000 civilians.
1842 Webster Ashjburton Treaty Signed-This treaty, negotiated by Daniel Webster, the American Secretary of State, and Lord Ashburton resolved the border dispute between the United States and Canada. Canada received 5,000 square miles; and the United States received 7,000. The dispute was primarily on the border of Maine. The disputed issue of the Oregon border was left for later settlement.
1843 Oregon Trail Opened- On May 22, 1843 nearly 1,000 settler began an overland trip to the Pacific. The first group overcame numberous hazards. Despite being forced to abandon most of their pocessions, the group made it safely to Oregon, They opened the way to countless settler to follow.
1843 Soujourner Truth on Tour -Soujourner Truth, a deeply religious former slave, began a speaking tour throughout the North protesting against slavery. She had been a slave most of her life, and had seen most of her 13 children sold before her eyes.
1843 John Trumball Dies -In 1843 John Trumball the American painter died. He is best known for the series of historical paintings, particularly of the Revolutionary War period.
1844 Treaty of Wanghia -Under the terms of this treaty, negotiated by Caleb Cushing, the United States gained the right to trade in Chinese ports, as well as gaining additional legal rights inside China.
1844 Franco Moroccan War The French began a war with Morocco which had refused to recognize its conquest of Algeria and provided the refuge to the Algerian rebel leader. The French defeated the Moroccans at the battle of Isly in North Eastern Morocco. The Moroccans were forced to agree to the Treaty of Tangiers that recognized the French sovereignty over Algeria.
1844 Telegraph Begun -The first inter-city telegraph was demonstrated by Samuel Morse. A telegraph line had been built for $30,000 between Washington and Baltimore. The telegraph was to open a new era of communication in the world.
1845 Texas Annexed-After the landslide victory of James Polk, who ran on a ticket supporting annexation of Texas, Congress approved the annexation by joint resolution. In years past, Congress had blocked the Tylers' treaties for these annexations.
1846 First Sikh War The First Anglo-Sikh War ended with a British victory at the battle of Sobraon in the Punjab. The war ended with the treaty of Lahore, which allowed the British to annex Kashmir.
1846 Mexican War-The U.S. Congress voted overwhelmingly to declare war on Mexico despite initial Whig opposition. Over the course of the two year war, the United States defeated the Mexicans and captured the capital, Mexico City. This enabled the U.S. to obtain favorable terms at the end of the war, including the ceding of New Mexico and California to the United States. Battle of Palo Alto Battle For New Mexico Battle for California Battle of Vera Cruz Battle of Cerro Gordo Battle For Mexico City
1846 Oregon Treaty The United States and Great Britain ended their dispute over the Oregon Territory with a compromise. They divided the disputed territory at the 49th parallel. All territory to the South became US territory.
1847 Mormons settle on Great Salt Lake-After many years of tribulations, the Mormons arrived at Salt Lake City. The Mormons settled there under the leadership of Brigham Young.
1847 Bronte Writes Wuthering Heights In 1847 Emily Jane Bronte an English Writer completed her work Wuthering Heights. In the same year her sister wrote Jane Eyre.
1847 Liberia Independent -Liberia declared its independence on July 26, 1847. Former American slaves had founded Liberia. Its first President was Joseph Jenkins and it became Africa's first independent republic.
1848 Revolution in France King Louis-Philippe of France refused to institute political reforms and extend suffrage. In response riots led by workers and students broke out. They force the king to abdicate in February 1848. As a result the Second French Republic began. In June unemployed workers protested in Paris and were brutally supressed.
1848 The Viennesse Revolution -Viennese students and workers inspired by events in France began in March to protest the policies of the Austrian government. Austrian foreign ministers Metternich resigned. Austrian emperor Ferdinand I attempted to placate the protesters by issuing a reform constitution. Conservative elements however, gained control and brutally put down the revolt. Ferdinand was forced to resign and was succeeded by Francis Joseph I.
1848 Guadalupe-Hidalgo Treaty Signed in February 1848 by the United States and Mexico, the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ended the Mexican-American War. Under the terms of the treaty, the border would be set at the Rio Grande River. The US gained most of California, New Mexico, Nevada, Wyoming, Colorado and Texas. The US paid Mexico $15 million for these territories.
1849 Hungarians Announce Independence -In response to a repressive constitution promulgated after the failed Viennese revolution the Hungarian diet on April 14th 1849 formally declared its independence from Austria. Lajos Kossuth was chosen to be governor of Hungary. The Russians intervene on behalf of the Austrians. On August 9th the Hungarian were decisively defeated at the battle of Temesovar thus ending the Hungarian bid for independence
1849 Second Sikh War -The British defeated the Sikhs at Chillianwalla and Gujart. This forced the Sikhs to surrender at Rawalpindi. The British annexed Punjab under the terms of the treaty of Raj.
1849 Gold Discovered in California -In January 1849, President Polk announced that gold had been found in California. This set off the Gold Rush, in which 80,000 individuals headed for California to seek their fortunes. The first wave arrived on February 28, 1949, and became known as “the 49ers.” These people changed the face of California.