World History 1810-1820 AD
Argentina Independent, Columbia Independent, Paraguay Independent, Venezuela Independent, War of 1812, Battle of Borodino, Napolean Retreats from Moscow, Treaty of Bucharest, Spanish Regain Control of Venezuela, Mexico Independent, Treaty of Ghent, Battle of the Nations, Battle of Vitcoria, Hartford Convention, Congress of Vienna, Napoleon Abdicates, Steam Engine, Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, Battle of Waterloo, German Confederation, Treaty of Paris, Sierre Leone, Chile Independent, Seminole War, Adams-Onis Treaty
|1810 Argentina Independent -A provisional junta was established in the provinces of the Rio de la Plata (Argentina). They declared their independence from Spain. This began an ongoing war to insure independence.|
|1811 Columbia Independent - On August 7th Simon Bolivar won a decisive victory over Spanish forces at the battle of Boyaca in present day Columbia. The Congress of Angostura was then convened which declared the Republic of Columbia.|
|1811 Paraguay Independent - On August 14, 1811 Paraguay was proclaimed independence from Spain. A republican form of government was established.|
|1811 Venezuela Independent - The Captain General of Caracas forms a junta and declares Venezuela independent. Francisco de Mirando is invited to return and lead the army. Simon Bolivar returns from London with Mirando and becomes one of the leaders of the rebellion.|
|1812 War of 1812 - The War of 1812 is one of the forgotten wars of the United States. The war lasted for over two years, and while it ended much like it started— in stalemate— it was in fact a war that once and for all confirmed American Independence. The offensive actions of the United States failed in every attempt to capture Canada. On the other hand, the British army was successfully stopped when it attempted to capture Baltimore and New Orleans. There were a number of American naval victories in which American vessels proved themselves superior to similarly sized British vessels. These victories coming after victories in the Quasi War (an even more forgotten war) launched American naval tradition|
|1812 Battle of Borodino- Napoleon Enters Moscow - The continued rivalry of Napoleon and Alexander made war between Russia and France all but inevitable. Napoleon organized an army of nearly 600,000 men. Napoleon's prime allies were the Prussians and the Austrians, both of whom supplied significant armies. In June of 1812 Napoleon's army set off. The Russian army fell back without significantly opposing Napolean's forces. By August the French led army had made its way to Smolensk on the Dnieper River. On September 7th the Russian army finally gave battle at the Battle of Borodino. Napoleon defeated the Russian army there and they were forced to withdraw, opening the road to Moscow before Napoleon. On September 14th, the French occupied the nearly deserted city. Between September 15th-19th Moscow burned as result of a fire initiated by the retreating Russians.|
|1812 Napolean Retreats from Moscow Napoleon maintained his army in the burned capital of Russia for five weeks in the hope of bringing Alexander to terms; finally on October 19th with winter setting in and his armies far from home he ordered a retreat from Moscow. His army was harassed throughout their retreat. Of his army of 600,000 less then 100,000 were left when they straggled across the Niemen River in the middle of December.|
|1812 Treaty of Bucharest- On May 28, 1812 the Ottomans signed the Treaty of Bucharest with Russia, thus ending their six year war. Under the terms of the treaty the Russians gained the province of Bessarabia and parts of Moldavia.|
|1812 Spanish Regain Control of Venezuela An earthquake in Venezuela was used by the clergy to claim that heaven opposed the revolution. With support weakened Miranda was forced to capitulate to the Spanish under the terms of the treaty of San Mateo. The treaty called for the granting of clemency to the rebels. The Spanish reneged and Miranda was imprisoned, where he died.|
|1812 Mexico Independent - 1812- After a victory at Cuautla, 45miles south of Mexico City Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon was able to capture Orizaba and Oaxaca from the Royalists.
The next year Acapulco was captured and Mexican Independence was declared.
|1812 Treaty of Ghent British and American negotiators met in August 1814, at Ghent, Belgium to negotiated a settlement in the War of 1812. They reached an agreement that restored all territory as it had been before the war– without resolving the territorial issues.|
|1813 Battle of the Nations Napoleon's disaster in Russia soon spelled his undoing. Much of his power had eminated from the perception that he could not be defeated. Once that occurred decisively as it had in Russia, many of his allies quickly deserted him and he was forced to face a large allied force. It began on August 12, 1812 when Austria declared war on France. With the financial support of Great Britain the Austrians were able to field three separate armies. In September the Austrians, Russians and Prussians signed the Treaty of Teplitz which formalized the alliances between them, and guaranteed that none of the participants would sign a separate treaty with France. From October 16th-19th the allies and the French fought the Battle of Leipzig otherwise known as the Battle of the Nations. In three days of fighting Napoleons army was decisively defeated on the field and then driven out of the city. The various kingdoms allied with Napoleon in Germany came to an end.|
|1813 Battle of Vitcoria On June 21st the British, under General Wellington, decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Vitoria in Spain. The British followed up with a number of other victories that took their armies by November across the French frontier where they invaded Bayonne in December.|
|1814 Hartford Convention-Americans in the Northeast continued their significant opposition to the War of 1812. A minority of New Englanders called for secession from the Union. Delegates from Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island convened in Hartford from December 15, 1814 to January 5, 1815.
A number of the radical Federalists at the convention called for secession of the New England states from the Union. The majority, however, voted for a platform demanding a change in the Constitution, requiring a two-thirds vote by Congress to impose an embargo, admit a western state into the Union or begin a war, except in the case of an invasion.
|1814 Congress of Vienna -One of the greatest international assemblies in history took place in Vienna between September 1814 and June 1815. The Congress of Vienna as it was known, was dominated by the Four victorious allies, the British, Prussians, Austrians and Russians. Prince Metttenich represented Austria, the Czar himself represented Russia,Castlereagh and Wellington represented Great Britain and William von Humboldt represented Prussia. The four parties who were known as the quadruple alliance undertook to maintain the balance of power in Europe. The Congress was attended by all the nations that existed prior to the Napoleonic Wars. Most of the "legitimate" dynasties are restored to power. The Kingdom of the Netherlands was established. While the Congress never met as one unit, it successfully worked out the various claims of the nations of Europe and established a framework that was to avoid a major European war for 50years.|
|1814 Napoleon Abdicates Soon after their victory at Leipzig the allies offered Napoleon peace under which France boundaries would be the Rhine and the Alps. Napoleon ignored the offer and the allies began a coordinated campaign that made its way through France. Napoleon was defeated in a series of battles each bringing the allies closer to Paris. On March 31, 1814 a victorious allied army entered Paris, and French foreign minister Talleyrand influenced the Senate to declare that Napoleon had forfeited the throne. On April 11th he abdicated the throne to the allies who gave him the island of Elba as his own sovereign principality with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs.|
|1814 George Stephenson Develop Steam Engine -The person who is considered the father of the locomotive is George Stephenson. He was a self educated man who could hardly read. His first locomotive was called the Bluecher.|
|1814 Pride and Prejudice Authored by Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice was authored by Jane Austen. She also wrote books such as Sense and Sensibility, Mansfield Park and Emma.|
|1815 Battle of Waterloo -News reached Napoleon at Elba of French discontent with renewed Bourbon rule. Napoleon decided to make another bid for power. On March 1, 1815 Napoleon landed in Cannes with 1,500 men. On March 20th he entered Paris. This began the 100 days. The major European powers united to oppose Napoleon each committing 180,000. The commander of the Allied forces became British General Wellington, who found himself in command of over 1,000, 000 men. On June 18th the Battle of Waterloo took place. Napoleon hurled his army against that of Wellington. The allied lines held, and Wellington received crucial reinforcements from Blucher. Napoleon's forces were defeated and he fled back towards Paris. On June 22nd he surrendered to allied forces. Napoleon spent the rest of his life imprisoned on the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic.|
|1815 German Confederation Established One of the results of the Congress of Vienna was the establishment of the German Confederation. The Confederation consisted of 39 member states. Despite the interest of some members to unify Germany, the major purposes of the confederation was self-defense.|
|1815 Second Treaty of Paris -With the capture of Napoleon the second treaty of Paris was signed. Under its terms the French were forced to pay an indemnity of 700 million francs for the 100 days. The French also gave up the Saar and Savoy. Foreign troops occupied France for three to five years, and the French were forced to pay for the maintenance of the troops. A secret treaty was signed among the European powers committing them to suppress revolutions both in France and throughout Europe. This became known as the Concert of Europe.|
|1815 Sierre Leone Established In 1807 the British established a Crown Colony in Sierre Leone.|
|1817 Chile Independent -|
|1817 Seminole War The Seminole War was a result of the joint activities between the Seminole Indians and fugitive slaves who frequently raided settlements in Georgia. General Andrew Jackson was sent to bring the Indians under control; a task which he successfully completed, eventhough he caused a storm by exceeding his authority.|
|1819 Adams-Onis Treaty-Under the terms of the Adams–Onis Treaty, the United States aquired Florida from Spain. In return, the US government agreed to assume $5 million worth of debts for which the Spanish were liable. In addition, the US recognized the Sabine River as the southwestern border between itself and the Spanish Empire.|