1903- Second Aliyah
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The Second Aliyah Transformed Palestine Between 1904 and 1914 40,000 immigrants from Eastern Europe arrived in Palestine. This migration was called the second Aliyah.
The Second Aliyah began in 1904 and continued until 1914. The second Aliyah was made up of young idealist immigrants from Russia and Poland. The Kishinev Pogrom spurred many to leave Europe; the newly founded Zionist organization focused many of potential emigrants on Palestine as a destination. The immigrants were idealistic and most were socialist. They believed in the power of Jewish labor to transform the country. While the immigrants from the first Aliya had employed Arabs at their farms, the members of the second believed in Jewish work.

The member of the second Aliyah founded a number Kibbutz’s (communal farms). The first one was at Degania. They also formed the first Jewish self defense organization Hashomer. The second Aliyah transformed Palestine. Its members founded Tel Aviv, which became the largest city in Palestine. They were also responsible for reviving Hebrew as a modern language. They established labor organizations and created the first long lasting framework for the future establishment of the State of Israel. Members of the second Aliyah included David Ben Gurion, Itzahk Ben Tzvi and Berl Katznelson.