Since most of the battles of the Civil War took place in the South, the daily life of most Northerners was not fundamentally shaken, with the exception of the loss of human life caused by the war. In the industrial north, efforts to produce the materials needed for the war led to further and more rapid industrialization. While this created an economic boom, few people benefited, because the high inflation rate reduced buying power.
Despite war casualties, the Northern population increased, because of immigration. Populations in the Northwest also increased, especially after the US government helped support the construction of railroads to the West and passed the Homestead Act in 1862. This act gave government land in the West to any one willing to settle it.