Achmad Sukarno was educated in Dutch schools. He became active in the movement for Indonesian independence, and was soon its leader. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II, he cooperated with the Japanese. At the end of the war, he declared Indonesia independent and became its first President. Sukarno was a strong proponent of neutrality. He became increasingly authoritarian, and in 1959 he dissolved the Parliament, and declared himself President for Life in 1962. In 1966 the military forced him to retire.