Suharto was born in a village in central Java. He was educated at cadet schools and served in the Army in its struggle for independence from the Dutch. After independence he rose through the army commands, reaching the rank of major general. After an abortive coup against Sukarno in 1964, he became the commander of the Army. The next year, Sukarno resigned and Suharto became acting President. Suharto maintained rule of Indonesia until 1998, when growing protest forced his resignation. The years of Suharto rule were marked by unprecedented cronyism.