Trimble was born in Augusta County, Virginia on November 17, 1776. He grew up in Kentucky. He attended Transylvania University and was admitted to the bar in 1803. Trimble was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1802. In 1807, he was appointed to the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1807. He resigned the next year to return to private practice. In 1817 President Madison appointed Trimble to the District Court of Kentucky where he served for eight years. President John Quincy Adams appointed Trimble to the Supreme Court in 1826, where he served for two years before he died.