Independence: October 29, 1923.
Constitution: November 7, 1982. Amended in 1987, 1995, 2001, 2007, and 2010.
Branches: Executive--president (chief of state), prime minister (head of government), Council of Ministers (cabinet--appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister). Legislative--Grand National Assembly (550 members) chosen by national elections at least every 4 years. Judicial--Constitutional Court, Court of Cassation, Council of State, and other courts.
Political parties with representatives in Parliament: Justice and Development Party (AKP) (336 seats), Republican People's Party (CHP) (101 seats), Nationalist Action Party (MHP) (70 seats), Peace and Democracy Party (BDP) (20 seats), Democratic Left Party (DSP) (6 seats), Democrat Party (DP) (1 seat), Turkey Party (TP) (1 seat), seven independents, and eight vacant seats.