Afghanistan Government

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AFGHANISTAN

The unicameral People's Assembly (Kuvendi Popullor) consists of 140 seats, 100 of which are determined by direct popular vote. The remaining seats are distributed by proportional representation. All members serve 4-year terms. The Speaker of Parliament (currently Servet Pellumbi) has two deputies, along with 13 parliamentary commissions, to legislate Albanian affairs.

The President is the head of state and elected by a three-fifths majority vote of all Assembly members. The President serves a term of 5 years with right to one re-election. Although the position is largely ceremonial, the Constitution does give the President authority to appoint and dismiss some civil servants in the executive and judicial branches. The current President's term expires on July 23, 2007.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President and approved by a simple majority of all members of the Assembly. The Prime Minister serves as the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (cabinet), which consists of the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, and other ministers. Members of the Council of Ministers are nominated by the Prime Minister and approved by the President.

Albania's civil law system is similar to that of other European countries. The court structure consists of a Constitutional Court, a Supreme Court, and multiple appeal and district courts. The Constitutional Court is comprised of nine members appointed by the Assembly for one 9-year term. The Constitutional Court interprets the Constitution, determines the constitutionality of laws, and resolves disagreements between local and federal authorities. The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal and consists of 11 members appointed by the President with the consent of the Assembly for 9-year terms. The President chairs the High Council of Justice, which is responsible for appointing and dismissing other judges. The High Court of Justice is comprised of 15 members--the President of the Republic, the Chairman of the High Court, the Minister of Justice, three members elected by the Assembly, and nine judges of all levels elected by the National Judicial Conference.

The remaining courts are divided into three jurisdictions: criminal, civil, and military. There are no jury trials under the Albanian system of justice. A college of three judges, who are sometimes referred to as a "jury" by the Albanian press, render court verdicts.
CURRENT GOVERNMENT
President Hamid KARZAI
Vice President Ahmad Zia MASOOD
Vice President Abdul Karim KHALILI
Min. of Agriculture & Food Obaidullah RAMIN
Min. of Border & Tribal Affairs Abdul Karim BARAWI
Min. of Commerce Hedayat Amin ARSALA
Min. of Communications Amirzai SANGIN
Min. of Counternarcotics Habibullah QADERI
Min. of Defense Abdul Rahim WARDAK
Min. of Economy Mir Mohammad Amin FARHANG
Min. of Education Nur Mohammad QARQIN
Min. of Energy, Water, & Power Ismail KHAN
Min. of Finance Anwar Ul-Haq AHADY
Min. of Foreign Affairs ABDULLAH, Dr.
Min. of Hajj & Islamic Affairs Nematollah SHAHRANI
Min. of Health Sayed Mohammad Amin FATEMI
Min. of Higher Education Sayed Amir Shah HASANYAR
Min. of Housing & Urban Development Yusof PASHTUN
Min. of Information & Culture Sayed Makhdum RAHIN, Dr.
Min. of Interior (Acting) Ahmad Moqbel ZARAR
Min. of Justice Sarwar DANESH
Min. of Labor & Social Affairs Sayed Ekramoddin Masumi AGHA Min. of Martyrs & Disabled Sediqa BALKHI
Min. of Mines & Industries Mir Mohammad SEDIQ
Min. of Public Works Sohrab Ali SAFARI
Min. of Refugees Azam DADFAR
Min. of Rural Development Mohammad Hanif ATMAR
Min. of Transportation Enayatollah QASEMI
Min. of Women's Affairs Massouda JALAL
Min. of Youth Amina AFZALI
Chair, Human Rights Commission Sima SAMAR
Chief Justice, Supreme Court Faisal Ahmad SHINWARI
National Security Adviser Zalmay RASSOUL
Governor, Central Bank Nurollah DELAWARI
Ambassador to the US Said Tayeb JAWAD
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Ravan A.G. FARHADI