|English statesman and supporter of Puritanism. A leader during the English Civil War, he eventually took on the role of chairman of the Council of State following the execution of King Charles I. As a military commander, quashed resistance in Wales, Ireland, and Scotland. Cromwell united England, Scotland, and Ireland and was declared lord protector when the new constitution was adopted in 1653. Although Cromwell's rule was marked by some significant domestic and foreign policy successes, including the reorganization of the Church of England; according Ireland parliamentary representation; ending the war with Portugal and Holland; effecting a treaty with France against Spain; defeating Spain and acquiring Dunkirk, England did not long remain a commonwealth: in 1660, two years after Cromwell's death, the monarchy was restored.