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HASHOMER FOUNDED In 1909, the Jewish settlers of Sereja, founded the first Jewish self-defense organization in Palestine. The organization began protecting the lower Galilee.
Many Jewish pioneers of the Second Aliyah settled in the Galilee. Their prior involvement in self-defense organizations in Russia led them in 1909 to set up Hashomer, the first Jewish self-defense force in Palestine. The leading founders of Hashomer were Itzhak Ben Zvi, Israel Gil'adi, Israel Shohat, and Alexander Zied. Hashomer entered into agreements with settlements in the Lower Galilee, which then dismissed their Arab watchmen. In 1911, the Jewish National Fund engaged Hashomer to guard its newly-purchased land in the Jezreel Valley. In 1911, Hashomer expanded beyond the Galilee and began providing security services to the settlements of Hadera and Rechovot . The initial membership in Hashomer was 30 members, and at no time did its membership exceed 100 members.