Articles 1 - 30 and Annex
The Covenant of the League of Nations
THE COVENANT OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES, In order to promote international co- operation and to
achieve international peace and security by the acceptance of obligations not to resort to war by the
prescription of open, just and honourable relations between nations by the firm establishment of the
understandings of international law as the actual rule of conduct among Governments, and by the
maintenance of justice and a scrupulous respect for all treaty obligations in the dealings of organised
peoples with one another Agree to this Covenant of the League of Nations.
The original Members of the League of Nations shall be those of the Signatories which are named in the Annex to this Covenant and also such of those other States named in the Annex as shall accede without reservation to this Covenant. Such accession shall be effected by a Declaration deposited
with the Secretariat within two months of the coming into force of the Covenant Notice thereof shall
be sent to all other Members of the League. Any fully self- governing State, Dominion, or Colony
not named in the Annex may become a Member of the League if its admission is agreed to by two-
thirds of the Assembly provided that it shall give effective guarantees of its sincere intention to
observe its international obligations, and shall accept such regulations as may be prescribed by the
League in regard to its military, naval, and air forces and armaments. Any Member of the League
may, after two years' notice of its intention so to do, withdraw from the League, provided that all
its international obligations and all its obligations under this Covenant shall have been fulfilled at the
time of its withdrawal.
The action of the League under this Covenant shall be effected through the instrumentality of an
Assembly and of a Council, with a permanent Secretariat.
The Assembly shall consist of Representatives of the Members of the League. The Assembly shall
meet at stated intervals and from time to time as occasion may require at the Seat of the League or at
such other place as may be decided upon. The Assembly may deal at its meetings with any matter
within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace of the world. At meetings of the
Assembly each Member of the League shall have one vote, and may not have more than three
The Council shall consist of Representatives of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,
together with Representatives of four other Members of the League. These four Members of the
League shall be selected by the Assembly from time to time in its discretion. Until the appointment
of the Representatives of the four Members of the League first selected by the Assembly,
Representatives of Belgium, Brazil, Spain, and Greece shall be members of the Council. With the
approval of the majority of the Assembly, the Council may name additional Members of the League
whose Representatives shall always be members of the Council; the Council with like approval may
increase the number of Members of the League to be selected by the Assembly for representation on
the Council. The Council shall meet from time to time as occasion may require, and at least once a
year, at the Seat of the League, or at such other place as may be decided upon. The Council may
deal at its meetings with any matter within the sphere of action of the League or affecting the peace
of the world. Any Member of the League not represented on the Council shall be invited to send a
Representative to sit as a member at any meeting of the Council during the consideration of matters
specially affecting the interests of that Member of the League. At meetings of the Council, each
Member of the League represented on the Council shall have one vote, and may have not more than
Except where otherwise expressly provided in this Covenant or by the terms of the present Treaty,
decisions at any meeting of the Assembly or of the Council shall require the agreement of all the
Members of the League represented at the meeting. All matters of procedure at meetings of the
Assembly or of the Council, including the appointment of Committees to investigate particular
matters, shall be regulated by the Assembly or by the Council and may be decided by a majority of
the Members of the League represented at the meeting. The first meeting of the Assembly and the
first meeting of the Council shall be summoned by the President of the United States of America.
The permanent Secretariat shall be established at the Seat of the League. The Secretariat shall
comprise a Secretary General and such secretaries and staff as may be required. The first Secretary
General shall be the person named in the Annex; thereafter the Secretary General shall be appointed
by the Council with the approval of the majority of the Assembly. The secretaries and staff of the
Secretariat shall be appointed by the Secretary General with the approval of the Council. The
Secretary General shall act in that capacity at all meetings of the Assembly and of the Council. The
expenses of the Secretariat shall be borne by the Members of the League in accordance with the
apportionment of the expenses of the International Bureau of the Universal Postal Union.
The Seat of the League is established at Geneva. The Council may at any time decide that the Seat of
the League shall be established elsewhere. All positions under or in connection with the League,
including he Secretariat, shall be open equally to men and women. Representatives of the Members
of the League and officials of he League when engaged on the business of the League shall enjoy
diplomatic privileges and immunities. The buildings and other property occupied by the League or
its officials or by Representatives attending its meetings shall be inviolable.
The Members of the League recognise that the maintenance of peace requires the reduction of
national armaments to the lowest point consistent with national safety and the enforcement by
common action of international obligations. The Council, taking account of the geographical
situation and circumstances of each State, shall formulate plans for such reduction for the
consideration and action of the several Governments. Such plans shall be subject to reconsideration
and revision at least every ten years. After these plans shall have been adopted by the several
Governments, the limits of armaments therein fixed shall not be exceeded without the concurrence
of the Council. The Members of the League agree that the manufacture by private enterprise of
munitions and implements of war is open to grave objections. The Council shall advise how the evil
effects attendant upon such manufacture can be prevented, due regard being had to the necessities of
those Members of the League which are not able to manufacture the munitions and implements of
war necessary for their safety. The Members of the League undertake to interchange full and frank
information as to the scale of their armaments, their military, naval, and air programmes and the
condition of such of their industries as are adaptable to war-like purposes.
A permanent Commission shall be constituted to advise the Council on the execution of the
provisions of Articles 1 and 8 and on military, naval, and air questions generally.
The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the
territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any
such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon
the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.
Any war or threat of war, whether immediately affecting any of the Members of the League or not,
is hereby declared a matter of concern to the whole League, and the League shall take any action that
may be deemed wise and effectual to safeguard the peace of nations. In case any such emergency
should arise the Secretary General shall on the request of any Member of the League forthwith
summon a meeting of the Council. It is also declared to be the friendly right of each Member of the
League to bring to the attention of the Assembly or of the Council any circumstance whatever
affecting international relations which threatens to disturb international peace or the good
understanding between nations upon which peace depends.
The Members of the League agree that if there should arise between them any dispute likely to lead
to a rupture, they will submit the matter either to arbitration or to inquiry by the Council, and they
agree in no case to resort to war until three months after the award by the arbitrators or the report by
the Council. In any case under this Article the award of the arbitrators shall be made within a
reasonable time, and the report of the Council shall be made within six months after the submission
of the dispute.
The Members of the League agree that whenever any dispute shall arise between them which they
recognise to be suitable for submission to arbitration and which cannot be satisfactorily settled by
diplomacy, they will submit the whole subject-matter to arbitration. Disputes as to the interpretation
of a treaty, as to any question of international law, as to the existence of any fact which if
established would constitute a breach of any international obligation, or as to the extent and nature
of the reparation to be made or any such breach, are declared to be among those which are generally
suitable for submission to arbitration. For the consideration of any such dispute the court of
arbitration to which the case is referred shall be the Court agreed on by the parties to the dispute or
stipulated in any convention existing between them. The Members of the League agree that they will
carry out in full good faith any award that may be rendered, and that they will not resort to war
against a Member of the League which complies therewith. In the event of any failure to carry out
such an award, the Council shall propose what steps should be taken to give effect thereto.
The Council shall formulate and submit to the Members of the League for adoption plans for the
establishment of a Permanent Court of International Justice. The Court shall be competent to hear
and determine any dispute of an international character which the parties thereto submit to it. The
Court may also give an advisory opinion upon any dispute or question referred to it by the Council
or by the Assembly.
If there should arise between Members of the League any dispute likely to lead to a rupture, which
is not submitted to arbitration in accordance with Article 13, the Members of the League agree that
they will submit the matter to the Council. Any party to the dispute may effect such submission by
giving notice of the existence of the dispute to the Secretary General, who will make all necessary
arrangements for a full investigation and consideration thereof. For this purpose the parties to the
dispute will communicate to the Secretary General, as promptly as possible, statements of their case
with all the relevant facts and papers, and the Council may forthwith direct the publication thereof.
The Council shall endeavour to effect a settlement of the dispute, and if such efforts are successful,
a statement shall be made public giving such facts and explanations regarding the dispute and the
terms of settlement thereof as the Council may deem appropriate. If the dispute is not thus settled,
the Council either unanimously or by a majority vote shall make and publish a report containing a
statement of the facts of the dispute and the recommendations which are deemed just and proper in
regard thereto Any Member of the League represented on the Council may make public a statement
of the facts of the dispute and of its conclusions regarding the same. If a report by the Council is
unanimously agreed to by the members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the
parties to the dispute, the Members of the League agree that they will not go to war with any party
to the dispute which complies with the recommendations of the report. If the Council fails to reach a
report which is unanimously agreed to by the members thereof, other than the Representatives of
one or more of the parties to the dispute, the Members of the League reserve to themselves the right
to take such action as they shall consider necessary for the maintenance of right and justice. If the
dispute between the parties is claimed by one of them, and is found by the Council, to arise out of a
matter which by international law is solely within the domestic jurisdiction of that party, the Council
shall so report, and shall make no recommendation as to its settlement. The Council may in any case
under this Article refer the dispute to the Assembly. The dispute shall be so referred at the request of
either party to the dispute, provided that such request be made within fourteen days after the
submission of the dispute to the Council. In any case referred to the Assembly, all the provisions of
this Article and of Article 12 relating to the action and powers of the Council shall apply to the
action and powers of the Assembly, provided that a report made by the Assembly, if concurred in
by the Representatives of those Members of the League represented on the Council and of a
majority of the other Members of the League, exclusive in each case of the Representatives of the
parties to the dispute shall have the same force as a report by the Council concurred in by all the
members thereof other than the Representatives of one or more of the parties to the dispute.
Should any Member of the League resort to war in disregard of its covenants under Articles 12, 13,
or 15, it shall ipso facto be deemed to have committed an act of war against all other Members of the
League, which hereby undertake immediately to subject it to the severance of all trade or financial
relations, the prohibition of all intercourse between their nations and the nationals of the
covenant-breaking State, and the prevention of all financial, commercial, or personal intercourse
between the nationals of the covenant-breaking State and the nationals of any other State, whether a
Member of the League or not. It shall be the duty of the Council in such case to recommend to the
several Governments concerned what effective military, naval, or air force the Members of the
League shall severally contribute to the armed forces to be used to protect the covenants of the
League. The Members of the League agree, further, that they will mutually support one another in
the financial and economic measures which are taken under this Article, in order to minimise the
loss and inconvenience resulting from the above measures, and that they will mutually support one
another in resisting any special measures aimed at one of their number by the covenant breaking
State, and that they will take the necessary steps to afford passage through their territory to the
forces of any of the Members of the League which are co-operating to protect the covenants of the
League. Any Member of the League which has violated any covenant of the League may be declared
to be no longer a Member of the League by a vote of the Council concurred in by the
Representatives of all the other Members of the League represented thereon.
In the event of a dispute between a Member of the League and a State which is not a Member of the
League, or between States not Members of the League, the State or States, not Members of the
League shall be invited to accept the obligations of membership in the League for the purposes of
such dispute, upon such conditions as the Council may deem just. If such invitation is accepted, the
provisions of Articles 12 to 16 inclusive shall be applied with such modifications as may be deemed
necessary by the Council. Upon such invitation being given the Council shall immediately institute
an inquiry into the circumstances of the dispute and recommend such action as may seem best and
most effectual in the circumstances. If a State so invited shall refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purposes of such dispute, and shall resort to war against a
Member of the League, the provisions of Article 16 shall be applicable as against the State taking
such action. If both parties to the dispute when so invited refuse to accept the obligations of
membership in the League for the purpose of such dispute, the Council may take such measures and
make such recommendations as will prevent hostilities and will result in the settlement of the
Every treaty or international engagement entered into hereafter by any Member of the League shall
be forthwith registered with the Secretariat and shall as soon as possible be published by it. No
such treaty or international engagement shall be binding until so registered.
The Assembly may from time to time advise the reconsideration by Members of the League of
treaties which have become inapplicable and the consideration of international conditions whose
continuance might endanger the peace of the world.
The Members of the League severally agree that this Covenant is accepted as abrogating all
obligations or understandings inter se which are inconsistent with the terms thereof, and solemnly
undertake that they will not hereafter enter into any engagements inconsistent with the terms thereof.
In case any Member of the League shall, before becoming a Member of the League, have
undertaken any obligations inconsistent with the terms of this Covenant, it shall be the duty of such
Member to take immediate steps to procure its release from such obligations.
Nothing in this Covenant shall be deemed to affect the validity of international engagements, such
as treaties of arbitration or regional understandings like the Monroe doctrine, for securing the
maintenance of peace.
To those colonies and territories which as a consequence of the late war have ceased to be under the sovereignty of the States which formerly governed them and which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, there should be applied the principle that the well-being and development of such peoples form a sacred trust of civilisation and that securities for the performance of this trust should be embodied in this
Covenant. The best method of giving practical effect to this principle is that the tutelage of such
peoples should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience
or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept
it, and that this tutelage should be exercised by them as Mandatories on behalf of the League. The
character of the mandate must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the
geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions, and other similar circumstances.
Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of development
where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the
rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to
stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of
the Mandatory. Other peoples, especially those of Central Africa, are at such a stage that the
Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will
guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, subject only to the maintenance of public order and
morals, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic, and the liquor traffic, and
the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military
training of the natives for other than police purposes and the defence of territory, and will also
secure equal opportunities for the trade and commerce of other Members of the League. There are
territories, such as South-West Africa and certain of the South Pacific Islands, which, owing to the
sparseness of their population, or their small size, or their remoteness from the centres of
civilisation, or their geographical contiguity to the territory of the Mandatory, and other
circumstances, can be best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its
territory, subject to the safeguards above mentioned in the interests of the indigenous population. In
every case of mandate, the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the
territory committed to its charge. The degree of authority, control, or administration to be exercised
by the Mandatory shall, if not previously agreed upon by the Members of the League, be explicitly
defined in each case by the Council. A permanent Commission shall be constituted to receive and
examine the annual reports of the Mandatories and to advise the Council on all matters relating to the
observance of the mandates.
Subject to and in accordance with the provisions of international conventions existing or hereafter to
be agreed upon, the Members of the League: (a) will endeavour to secure and maintain fair and
humane conditions of labour for men, women, and children, both in their own countries and in all
countries to which their commercial and industrial relations extend, and for that purpose will
establish and maintain the necessary international organisations; (b) undertake to secure just
treatment of the native inhabitants of territories under their control; © will entrust the League with
the general supervision over the execution of agreements with regard to the traffic in women and
children, and the traffic in opium and other dangerous drugs; (d) will entrust the League with the
general supervision of the trade in arms and ammunition with the countries in which the control of
this traffic is necessary in the common interest; (e) will make provision to secure and maintain
freedom of communications and of transit and equitable treatment for the commerce of all Members
of the League. In this connection, the special necessities of the regions devastated during the war of
1914-1918 shall be borne in mind; (f) will endeavour to take steps in matters of international
concern for the prevention and control of disease.
There shall be placed under the direction of the League all international bureaux already established
by general treaties if the parties to such treaties consent. All such international bureaux and all
commissions for the regulation of matters of international interest hereafter constituted shall be
placed under the direction of the League. In all matters of international interest which are regulated
by general conventions but which are not placed under the control of international bureaux or
commissions, the Secretariat of the League shall, subject to the consent of the Council and if desired
by the parties, collect and distribute all relevant information and shall render any other assistance
which may be necessary or desirable. The Council may include as part of the expenses of the
Secretariat the expenses of any bureau or commission which is placed under the direction of the
The Members of the League agree to encourage and promote the establishment and co-operation of
duly authorised voluntary national Red Cross organisations having as purposes the improvement of
health, the prevention of disease, and the mitigation of suffering throughout the world.
Amendments to this Covenant will take effect when ratified by the Members of the League whose
representatives compose the Council and by a majority of the Members of the League whose
Representatives compose the Assembly. No such amendment shall bind any Member of the League
which signifies its dissent therefrom, but in that case it shall cease to be a Member of the League.
I. ORIGINAL MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS SIGNATORIES OF THE TREATY
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BELGIUM, BOLIVIA, BRAZIL, BRITISH EMPIRE,
CANADA, AUSTRALIA, SOUTH AFRICA, NEW ZEALAND, INDIA, CHINA, CUBA,
ECUADOR, FRANCE, GREECE, GUATEMALA, HAITI, HEDJAZ, HONDURAS, ITALY,
JAPAN, LIBERIA, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, PERU, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA,
SERB-CROAT-SLOVENE STATE, SIAM, CZECHO-SLOVAKIA, URUGUAY
STATES INVITED TO ACCEDE TO THE COVENANT.
ARGENTINE REPUBLIC, CHILE, COLOMBIA, DENMARK, NETHERLANDS, NORWAY,
PARAGUAY, PERSIA, SALVADOR, SPAIN, SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, VENEZUELA.
II. FIRST SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS.
The Honourable Sir James Eric Drummond, K.C.M.G., C.B.
Articles 27-30 Boundaries of Germany PART II.
BOUNDARIES OF GERMANY.
The boundaries of Germany will be determined as follows:
1. With Belgium:
From the point common to the three frontiers of Belgium, Holland, and Germany and in a southerly
direction: the north-eastern boundary of the former territory of neutral Moresnet' then the eastern
boundary of the Kreis of Eupen, then the frontier between Belgium and the Kreis of Montjoie, then
the northeastern and eastern boundary of the Kreis of Malmedy to its junction with the frontier of
2. With Luxemburg:
The frontier of August 3, 1914, to its junction with the frontier of France of the 18th July, 1870.
3. With France:
The frontier of July 18, 1870, from Luxemburg to Switzerland with the reservations made in Article
48 of Section IV (Saar Basin) of Part III.
4. With Switzerland:
The present frontier.
5. With Austria.
The frontier of August 3, 1914, from Switzerland to CzechoSlovakia as hereinafter defined.
6. With Czecho-Slovakia:
The frontier of August 3, 1914, between Germany and Austria from its junction with the old
administrative boundary separating Bohemia and the province of Upper Austria to the point north of
the salient of the old province of Austrian Silesia situated at about 8 kilometres east of Neustadt.
7. With Poland:
From the point defined above to a point to be fixed on the ground about 2 kilometres east of
Lorzendorf: the fronticr as it will be fixed in accordance with Article 88 of the present Treaty; thence
in a northerly direction to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania crosses the river
Bartsch: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the following placcs in Poland: Skorischau,
Reichthal, Trembatschau, Kunzendorf, Schleise, Gross Koscl, Schreibersdorf, Rippin,
Furstlich-Niefken, Pawelau, Tscheschen, Konradau, Johallnisdorf, Modzenowe, Bogdaj, and in
Gerrmany: Lorzendorf, Kaulwitz, Glausche, Dalbersdorf, Reesewitz, Stradam, Gross Wartenberg,
Kraschen, Neu Mittelwalde, Domaslawitz, Wedelsdorf, Tscheschen Hammer; thence the
administrative boundary of Posnania northwestwards to the point where it cuts the Rawitsch-
Herrnstadt railway; thence to the point where the administrative boundary of Posnania cuts the
Reisen-Tschirnau road: a line to be fixed on the ground passing west of Triebusch and Gabel and
east of Saborwitz; thence the administrative boundary of Posnania to its junction with the eastern
administrative boundary of the Kreis of Fraustadt; thence in a north-westerly direction to a point to
be chosen on the road between the villages of Unruhstadt and Kopnitz: a line to be fixed on the
ground passing west of Geyersdorf, Brenno, Fehlen, Altkloster, Klebel, and east of Ulbersdorf,
Buchwald, Ilgen,Weine, Lupitze, Schwenten: thence in a northerly direction to the northernmost
point of Lake Chlop: a line to be fixed on the ground following the median line of the lakes; the
town and the station of Bentschen however (including the junction of the lines
Schwiebus-Bentschen and Zullichau-Bentschen) remaining in Polish territory; thence in a
north-easterly direction to the point of junction of the boundaries of the Kreise of Schwerin,
Birnbaum, and Meseritz: a line to be fixed on the ground passing east of Betsche; thence in a
northerly direction the boundary separating the Kreise of Schwerin and Birnbaum, then in an
easterly direction the northern boundary of Posnania to the point where it cuts the river Netze;
thence upstream to its confluence with the Kaddow: the course of the Netze; thence upstream to a
point to be chosen about 6 kilometres southeast of Schneidemuhl: the course of the Kuddow; thence
north-eastwards to the most southern point of the reentant of the northern boundary of Posnania
about 5 kilometres west of Stahren: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving the
SchneidemuhlKonitz railway in this area entirely in German territory; thence the boundary of
Posnania north-eastwards to the point of the salient it makes about 15 kilometres east of Flatow;
thence north-eastwards to the point where the river Kamionka meets the southern boundary of the
Kreis of Konitz about 3 kilometres north-east of Grunau: a line to be fixed on the ground leaving
the following places to Poland: Jasdrowo, Gr. Lutau, Kl. Lutau, Wittkau, and to Germany: Gr.
Butzig, Cziskowo, Battrow, Bock, Grunau; thence in a northerly direction the boundary between
the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau to the point where this boundary cuts the river Brahe; thence to
a point on the boundary of Pomerania 15 kilometres east of Rummelsburg: a line to be fixed on the
ground leaving the following places in Poland: Konarzin, Kelpin, Adl. Briesen, and in Germany:
Sampohl, Neuguth, Steinfort, Gr. Peterkau; then the boundary of Pomerania in an easterly direction
to its junction with the boundary between the Kreise of Konitz and Schlochau; thence northwards
the boundary between Pomerania and West Prussia to the point on the river Rheda about 3
kilometres northwest of Gohra where that river is joined by a tributary from the north-west; thence
to a point to be selected in the bend of the Piasnitz river about 1 1/2 kilometres north-west of
Warschkau: a line to be fixed on the ground; thence this river downstream, then the median line of
Lake Zarnowitz, then the old boundary of West Prussia to the Baltic Sea. 8. With Denmark:
The frontier as it will be fixed in accordance with Articles 109 to III of Part III, Section XII
The boundaries of East Prussia, with the reservations made in Section IX (East Prussia) of Part III,
will be determined as follows: from a point on the coast of the Baltic Sea about 1 1/2 kilometres
north of Probbernau church in a direction of about 159° East from true North: a line to be fixed on
the ground for about 2 kilometres; thence in a straight line to the light at the bend of the Elbing
Channel in approximately latitude 54° 19 1/2' North, longitude 19° 26' East of Greenwich; thence to
the easternmost mouth of the Nogat River at a bearing of approximately 209° East from true North;
thence up the course of the Nogat River to the point where the latter leaves the Vistula
(Weichsel);thence up the principal channel of navigation of the Vistula, then the southern boundary
of the Kreis of Marienwerder, then that of the Kreis of Rosenberg eastwards to the point where it
meets the old boundary of East Prussia, thence the old boundary between East and West Prussia,
then the boundary between the Kreise of Osterode and Neidenburg, then the course of the river
Skottau downstream, then the course of the Neide upstream to a point situated about 5 kilometres
west of Bialutten being the nearest point to the old frontier of Russia; thence in an easterly direction
to a point immediately south of the intersection of the road Neidenburg-Mlava with the old frontier
of Russia: a line to be fixed on the ground passing north of Bialutten; thence the old frontier of
Russia to a point east of Schmalleningken, then the principal channel of navigation of the Niemen
(Memel) downstream, then the Skierwieth arm of the delta to the Kurisches Haff; thence a straight
line to the point where the eastern shore of the Kurische Nehrung meets the administrative boundary
about 4 kilometres south-west of Nidden; thence this administrative boundary to the western shore
of the Kurische Nehrung.
The boundaries as described above are drawn in red on a one-in-a- million map which is annexed to
the present Treaty (Map No. 1). [See Introduction.] In the case of any discrepancies between the
text of the Treaty and this map or any other map which may be annexed, the text will be final.
In the case of boundaries which are defined by a waterway, the terms "course" and "channel" used
in the present Treaty signify: in the case of non-navigable rivers, the median line of the waterway or
of its principal arm, and, in the case of navigable rivers, the median line of the principal channel of
navigation It will rest with the Boundary Commissions provided by the present Treaty to specify in
each case whether the frontier line shall follow any changes of the course or channel which may
take place or whether it shall be definitely fixed by the position of the course or channel at the time
when the present Treaty comes into force.