Department of the Treasury - one of the Cabinet departments, created in 1789. The department is headed by the Secretary of the Treasury. The department acts as the primary financial agency of the federal government. It collects taxes and customs duties; manages the public debt; enforces criminal laws relating to taxes, smuggling, and counterfeiting; does accounting for public money; supervises national banks; and manufactures paper money and coins. The bureaus of the Department of the Treasury include: the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency; the Bureau of the Public Debt; the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms; the United States Customs Service; United States Secret Service; the Internal Revenue Service; the United States Mint; and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing.. . .