Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
Reza Pahlavi became Shah of Iran upon his father's abdication in 1941. In 1953, his rule was interrupted by an uprising led by Prime Minister Mossadeq.
With the help of the US, Pahlavi was reinstated. In 1963, Pahlavi began a campaign of modernization that was met by increasing opposition from Muslim fundamentalists.
These policies, combined with corruption and increasing repression, led to a revolt that toppled the Shah and brought Ayatollah Khomeini to power in 1979.
The Shah died in exile, his health having seriously deteriorated.