Uganda became independent onOctober 9, 1962. On achieving independence, Milton Obote became the first leader. A federal form of government was enacted in order to insure the rights of the King of Buganda, Edward Mutesa.
Unlike some other African nations that witnessed large-scale nationalist movements or armed rebellions, Uganda's path to independence was relatively peaceful but still fraught with internal tensions among various ethnic groups and kingdoms, most notably Buganda.
The process formally began in the aftermath of World War II, a period that saw the rise of nationalist sentiments across colonial territories globally. The British colonial administration initiated a series of constitutional reforms aimed at granting more self-governance to Ugandans. These early steps were designed to slowly bring Africans into administrative roles and to lay the groundwork for eventual independence.
However, the actual pace of progress towards self-governance was slow, leading to increased dissatisfaction. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, political activism began to coalesce around two major parties: the Uganda National Congress (UNC) and the Democratic Party (DP). Additionally, Uganda's traditional kingdoms, particularly Buganda, began demanding greater autonomy.
The Buganda Kingdom, led by Edward Mutesa II, played a pivotal role in the independence movement, though it initially appeared more concerned with safeguarding its own autonomy than with Uganda's overall independence. Buganda's ambivalence towards a united Ugandan state made the transition to independence particularly intricate. A significant event in this regard was the 1955 "Namirembe Conference," where various stakeholders met to discuss the future of Uganda’s constitution. However, the conference failed to bring about a consensus, reflecting the deep-seated divisions between different regions and communities.
It wasn't until Milton Obote aligned his Uganda People's Congress (UPC) with the Buganda Kingdom that a viable path to independence seemed possible. This alliance was instrumental in pushing for self-governance. Obote promised to safeguard Buganda's interests, a commitment that resulted in the kingdom throwing its weight behind the campaign for a federal Uganda, wherein kingdoms like Buganda would maintain a degree of autonomy.
On October 9, 1962, Uganda finally gained its independence. A federal constitution was enacted to balance the diverse interests of its various communities. Despite the apparent smoothness of the formal transition, the social and political fissures that were exposed during the struggle for independence would come back to haunt the nation in its post-independence era, especially in the volatile relationships between different ethnic groups and kingdoms, notably Buganda and the central government.