|Representatives of 30 of the 32 independent nations of Africa met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to form the Organization of African Unity (OAU). An outgrowth of the Pan-Africanist movement begun by W. E. B. Du Bois and other African-American intellectuals, the OAU was intended to foster unity among African nations. Headquarters were established in Addis Ababa. The organization stood for the eradication of colonialism, mutual defense, and the promotion of the economic and social welfare of member states. The OAU was successful in mediating conflicts between Algeria and Morocco (1965), Somalia and Ethiopia and Somalia and Kenya (1965-67), but fared poorly in its dealings with the Nigerian-Biafra Civil War (1968-70). Repeated attempts in the 1970's and 1980's to move the continent toward greater economic integration also failed and, by the 1990's, the OAU spoke with a voice that rang with little authority.