The Italian-Turkish War was officially brought to an end by the Treaty of Ouchy which gave Libya to the Italians. The Italians had fought a long and hard battle for control of Libya. They encountered unexpectedly strong opposition from the Turks allied with the Arabs and Berbers.
Italy, a relatively late entrant into the colonial race, was eager to expand its territories and establish itself as a formidable imperial power. North Africa, with its vast stretches of land and strategic position along the Mediterranean, was particularly attractive. Libya, under Ottoman control, emerged as the primary target of Italy's colonial ambitions. The Italians believed that by capturing Libya, they could bolster their prestige and also gain a strategic foothold in North Africa.
When the war began in 1911, the Italians expected a swift victory. Armed with a modern navy and well-equipped ground forces, they believed they held a significant advantage over the waning Ottoman Empire. However, as the conflict unraveled, it became clear that this would not be a straightforward conquest.
The Turks, recognizing the potential loss of yet another territory from their vast but crumbling empire, mounted a vigorous defense. But it wasn't just the Ottoman military that the Italians had to contend with. In their bid to retain Libya, the Turks forged alliances with local Arab tribes and Berber communities. These groups, driven by a mix of loyalty to the Ottoman sultans and a desire to resist foreign occupation, became formidable adversaries for the Italians.
This unexpected resistance meant that the Italians had to fight a prolonged and challenging battle on multiple fronts. While they had successes along the coastal regions and major towns, the vast Libyan hinterlands proved difficult to control. The combined forces of the Turks, Arabs, and Berbers engaged in guerrilla warfare, striking Italian forces and then melting away into the vast desert landscapes.
As the conflict dragged on, both sides began to feel the strain. The Italians were bogged down in a war that was more costly and complex than anticipated, while the Ottomans were grappling with multiple challenges, not least the looming Balkan Wars that threatened their European territories.
Recognizing the need for a resolution, the two powers convened in Lausanne, Switzerland. The negotiations culminated in the Treaty of Ouchy in October 1912. Named after the suburb of Lausanne where the agreement was signed, the treaty formally ended hostilities between Italy and the Ottoman Empire. The primary term of this agreement was the cession of Libya to Italy, marking the official end of Ottoman rule in North Africa.
While the treaty gave Italy formal control over Libya, the challenges were far from over. The legacy of the war and the fierce resistance encountered meant that Italy would spend several more decades trying to fully pacify and control the vast North African territory.