The Congo Free State, which had been the private property of Belgian King Leopold II, became an official Belgian colony. The action was taken by the Belgian Parliament after revelations about Leopold's rule had become so scandalous that Parliament felt it had no other option..
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the vast region of Central Africa known as the Congo Free State was notn independent nation. Instead, it was the private possession of King Leopold II of Belgium, acquired through shrewd political maneuvering and a facade of philanthropic intent. In essence, the Congo was Leopold's personal fiefdom, and he exploited its abundant resources, particularly rubber, with a brutal efficiency that has left a dark stain on the annals of colonial history.
Under Leopold's rule, the native Congolese were subjected to unthinkable horrors. They were forced into hard labor, subjected to harsh corporal punishments, and lived under a regime of terror. Many were maimed or killed if they failed to meet the demanding rubber quotas. It's estimated that millions of Congolese perished as a direct result of the King's exploitative practices. These abuses were carried out by the Force Publique, a mercenary army that answered directly to Leopold.
By the early 20th century, word of these atrocities began to reach international audiences, largely due to the efforts of whistleblowers and activists, such as the British consul Roger Casement and the American journalist E.D. Morel. Their accounts, combined with photographs and testimonies of the afflicted, painted a harrowing picture of life under Leopold's rule. The international outcry grew so strong that the Belgian Parliament could no longer ignore the crisis.
Faced with mounting public pressure and the indefensible revelations about the King's rule, the Belgian Parliament took action in 1908. They wrested control of the Congo Free State from Leopold and transformed it into an official Belgian colony, renaming it the Belgian Congo. This was seen as a way to put an end to the widespread abuses and bring a semblance of humanitarian governance to the region. However, while the worst excesses of Leopold's rule ended, colonial exploitation and its associated issues persisted for many decades until the Congo finally achieved independence in 1960.