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McCarran Internal Security Act [1950]

 

AN ACT

To protect the United States against certain un-American and subversive activities by requiring registration of Communist organizations, and for other purposes.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That this Act may be cited as the ''Internal Security Act of 1950''.

TITLE I-SUBVERSIVE ACTIVITIES CONTROL
Section 1. (a) This title may be cited as the ''Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950''.
(b) Nothing in this Act shall be construed to authorize, require, or establish military or civilian censorship or in any way to limit or infringe upon freedom of the press or of speech as guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and no regulation shall be promulgated hereunder having that effect.

Necessity for Legislation

Sec. 2. As a result of evidence adduced before various committees of the Senate and House of Representatives, the Congress hereby finds that-

(1) There exists a world Communist movement which, in its origins, its development, and its present practice, is a world-wide revolutionary movement whose purpose it is, by treachery, deceit, infiltration into other groups (governmental and otherwise), espionage, sabotage, terrorism, and any other means deemed necessary, to establish a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in the countries throughout the world through the medium of a world-wide Communist organization.

(2) The establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in any country results in the suppression of all opposition to the party in power, the subordination of the rights of individuals to the state, the denial of fundamental rights and liberties which are characteristic of a representative form of government, such as freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, and of religious worship, and results in the maintenance of control over the people through fear, terrorism, and brutality.

(3) The system of government known as a totalitarian dictatorship is characterized by the existence of a single political party, organized on a dictatorial basis, and by substantial identity between such party and its policies and the government and governmental policies of the country in which it exists.

(4) The direction and control of the world Communist movement is vested in and exercised by the Communist dictatorship of a foreign country.

(5) The Communist dictatorship of such foreign country, in exercising such direction and control and in furthering the purposes of the world Communist movement, establishes or causes the establishment of, and utilizes, in various countries, action organizations which are not free and independent organizations, but are sections of a world-wide Communist organization and are controlled, directed, and subject to the discipline of the Communist dictatorship of such foreign country.

(6) The Communist action organizations so established and utilized in various countries, acting under such control, direction, and discipline, endeavor to carry out the objectives of the world Communist movement by bringing about the overthrow of existing governments by any available means, including force if necessary, and setting up Communist totalitarian dictatorships which will be subservient to the most powerful existing Communist totalitarian dictatorship. Although such organizations usually designate themselves as political parties, they are in fact constituent elements of the world-wide Communist movement and promote the objectives of such movement by conspiratorial and coercive tactics, instead of through the democratic processes of a free elective system or through the freedom-preserving means employed by a political party which operates as an agency by which people govern themselves.

(7) In carrying on the activities referred to in paragraph (6), such Communist organizations in various countries are organized on a secret, conspiratorial basis and operate to a substantial extent through organizations, commonly known as ''Communist fronts'', which in most instances are created and maintained, or used, in such manner as to conceal the facts as to their true character and purposes and their membership. One result of this method of operation is that such affiliated organizations are able to obtain financial and other support from persons who would not extend such support if they knew the true purposes of, and the actual nature of the control and influence exerted upon, such ''Communist fronts''.

(8) Due to the nature and scope of the world Communist movement, with the existence of affiliated constituent elements working toward common objectives in various countries of the world, travel of Communist members, representatives, and agents from country to country facilitates communication and is prerequisite for the carrying on of activities to further the purposes of the Communist movement.

(9) In the United States those individuals who knowingly and willfully participate in the world Communist movement, when they so participate, in effect repudiate their allegiance to the United States, and in effect transfer their allegiance to the foreign country in which is vested the direction and control of the world Communist movement.

(10) In pursuance of communism's stated objectives, the most powerful existing Communist dictatorship has, by the methods referred to above, already caused the establishment in numerous foreign countries of Communist totalitarian dictatorships, and threatens to establish similar dictatorships in still other countries.

(11) The agents of communism have devised clever and ruthless espionage and sabotage tactics which are carried out in many instances in form or manner successfully evasive of existing law.

(12) The Communist network in the United States is inspired and controlled in large part by foreign agents who are sent into the United States ostensibly as attaches of foreign legations, affiliates of international organizations, members of trading commissions, and in similar capacities, but who use their diplomatic or semidiplomatic status as a shield behind which to engage in activities prejudicial to the public security.

(13) There are, under our present immigration laws, numerous aliens who have been found to be deportable, many of whom are in the subversive, criminal, or immoral classes who are free to roam the country at will without supervision or control.

(14) One device for infiltration by Communists is by procuring naturalization for disloyal aliens who use their citizenship as a badge for admission into the fabric of our society.

(15) The Communist movement in the United States is an organization numbering thousands of adherents, rigidly and ruthlesslydisciplined. Awaiting and seeking to advance a moment when the United States may be so far extended by foreign engagements, so far divided in counsel, or so far in industrial or financial straits, that overthrow of the Government of the United States by force and violence may seem possible of achievement, it seeks converts far and wide by an extensive system of schooling and indoctrination. Such preparations by Communist organizations in other countries have aided in supplanting existing governments. The Communist organization in the United States, pursuing its stated objectives, the recent successes of Communist methods in other countries, and the nature and control of the world Communist movement itself, present a clear and present danger to the security of the United States and to the existence of free American institutions, and make it necessary that Congress, in order to provide for the common defense, to preserve the sovereignty of the United States as an independent nation, and to guarantee to each State a republican form of government, enact appropriate legislation recognizing the existence of such worldwide conspiracy and designed to prevent it from accomplishing its purpose in the United States.

Definitions
Sec. 3. For the purposes of this title-
(1) The term ''person'' means an individual or an organization.
(2) The term ''organization'' means an organization, corporation, company, partnership, association, trust, foundation, or fund; and includes a group of persons, whether or not incorporated, permanently or temporarily associated together for joint action on any subject or subjects.
(3) The term ''Communist-action organization'' means-
(a) any organization in the United States (other than a diplomatic representative or mission of a foreign government accredited as such by the Department of State) which (i) is substantially directed, dominated, or controlled by the foreign government or foreign organization controlling the world Communist movement referred to in section 2 of this title, and (ii) operates primarily to advance the objectives of such world Communist movement as referred to in section 2 of this title; and
(b) any section, branch, fraction, or cell of any organization defined in subparagraph (a) of this paragraph which has not complied with the registration requirements of this title.
(4) The term ''Communist-front organization'' means any organization in the United States (other than a Communist-action organization as defined in paragraph (3) of this section) which (A) is substantially directed, dominated, or controlled by a Communist-action organization, and (B) is primarily operated for the purpose of giving aid and support to a Communist-action organization, a Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2 of this title.
(5) The term ''Communist organization'' means a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization.
(6) The term ''to contribute funds or services'' includes the rendering of any personal service and the making of any gift, subscription, loan, advance, or deposit, of money or of anything of value, and also the making of any contract, promise, or agreement to contribute funds or services, whether or not legally enforcible.
(7) The term ''facility'' means any plant, factory or other manufacturing, producing or service establishment, airport, airport facility, vessel, pier, water-front facility, mine, railroad, public utility, laboratory, station, or other establishment or facility, or any part, division, or department of any of the foregoing. The term ''defense facility'' means any facility designated and proclaimed by the Secretary of Defense pursuant to section 5(b) of this title and included on the list published and currently in effect under such subsection, and which is in compliance with the provisions of such subsection respecting the posting of notice of such designation.
(8) The term ''publication'' means any circular, newspaper, periodical, pamphlet, book, letter, post card, leaflet, or other publication.
(9) The term ''United States'', when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States, Territories, and possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, and the Canal Zone.
(10) The term ''interstate or foreign commerce'' means trade, traffic, commerce, transportation, or communication (A) between any State, Territory, or possession of the United States (including the Canal Zone), or the District of Columbia, and any place outside thereof, or (B) within any Territory or possession of the United States (including the Canal Zone), or within the District of Columbia.
(11) The term ''Board'' means the Subversive Activities Control Board created by section 12 of this title.
(12) The term ''final order of the Board'' means an order issued by the Board under section 13 of this title, which has become final as provided in section 14 of this title.
(13) The term ''advocates'' includes advises, recommends, furthers by overt act, and admits belief in; and the giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or anything of value to be used for advocating any doctrine shall be deemed to constitute the advocating of such doctrine.
(14) The term ''world communism'' means a revolutionary movement, the purpose of which is to establish eventually a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in any or all the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist movement.
(15) The terms ''totalitarian dictatorship'' and ''totalitarianism'' mean and refer to systems of government not representative in fact, characterized by (A) the existence of a single political party, organized on a dictatorial basis, with so close an identity between such party and its policies and the governmental policies of the country in which it exists, that the party and the government constitute an indistinguishable unit, and (B) the forcible suppression of opposition to such party.
(16) The term ''doctrine'' includes, but is not limited to, policies, practices, purposes, aims, or procedures.
(17) The giving, loaning, or promising of support or of money or any other thing of value for any purpose to any organization shall be conclusively presumed to constitute affiliation therewith; but nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as an exclusive definition of affiliation.
(18) ''Advocating the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism'' means advocating the establishment of a totalitarian Communist dictatorship in any or all of the countries of the world through the medium of an internationally coordinated Communist movement.
(19) ''Advocating the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism'' means advocating the establishment of totalitarianism (other than world communism) and includes, but is not limited to, advocating the economic and governmental doctrines of fascism and nazism.

Certain Prohibited Acts
Sec. 4. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person knowingly to combine, conspire, or agree, with any other person to perform any act which would substantially contribute to the establishment within the United States of a totalitarian dictatorship, as defined in paragraph (15) of section 3 of this title, the direction and control of which is to be vested in, or exercised by or under the domination or control of, any foreign government, foreign organization, or foreign individual: Provided, however, That this subsection shall not apply to the proposal of a constitutional amendment.

(b) It shall be unlawful for any officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, or of any corporation the stock of which is owned in whole or in major part by the United States or any department or agency thereof, to communicate in any manner or by any means, to any other person whom such officer or employee knows or has reason to believe to be an agent or representative of any foreign government or any officer or member of any Communist organization as defined in paragraph (5) of section 3 of this title, any information of a kind which shall have been classified by the President (or by the head of any such department, agency, or corporation with the approval of the President) as affecting the security of the United States, knowing or having reason to know that such information has been so classified, unless such officer or employees shall have been specifically authorized by the President, or by the head of the department, agency, or corporation by which this officer or employee is employed, to make such disclosure of such information.

(c) It shall be unlawful for any agent or representative of any foreign government, or any officer or member of any Communist organization as defined in paragraph (5) of section 3 of this title, knowingly to obtain or receive, or attempt to obtain or receive, directly or indirectly, from any officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof or of any corporation the stock of which is owned in whole or in major part by the United States or any department or agency thereof, any information of a kind which shall have been classified by the President (or by the head of any such department, agency, or corporation with the approval of the President) as affecting the security of the United States, unless special authorization for such communication shall first have been obtained from the head of the department, agency, or corporation having custody of or control over such information.

(d) Any person who violates any provision of this section shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or by both such fine and such imprisonment, and shall, moreover, be thereafter ineligible to hold any office, or place of honor, profit, or trust created by the Constitution or laws of the United States.

(e) Any person may be prosecuted, tried, and punished for any violation of this section at any time within ten years after the commission of such offence, notwithstanding the provisions of any other statute of limitations: Provided, That if at the time of the commission of the offense such person is an officer or employee of the United States or of any department or agency thereof, or of any corporation the stock of which is owned in whole or in major part by the United States or any department or agency thereof, such person may be prosecuted, tried, and punished for any violation of this section at any time within ten years after such person has ceased to be employed as such officer or employee.

(f) Neither the holding of office nor membership in any Communist organization by any person shall constitute per se a violation of subsection (a) or subsection (c) of this section or of any other criminal statute. The fact of the registration of any person under section 7 or section 8 of this title as an officer or member of any Communist organization shall not be received in evidence against such person in any prosecution for any alleged violation of subsection (a) or subsection (c) of this section or for any alleged violation of any other criminal statute.

Employment of Members of Communist Organizations

Sec. 5. (a) When a Communist organization, as defined in paragraph (5) of section 3 of this title, is registered or there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring such organization to register, it shall be unlawful-
(1) For any member of such organization, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so registered or that such order has become final-

(A) in seeking, accepting, or holding any nonelective office or employment under the United States, to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that he is a member of such organization; or

(B) to hold any nonelective office or employment under the United States; or

(C) in seeking, accepting, or holding employment in any defense facility, to conceal or fail to disclose the fact that he is a member of such organization; or

(D) if such organization is a Communist-action organization, to engage in any employment in any defense facility.
(2) For any officer or employee of the United States or of any defense facility, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so registered or that such order has become final-

(A) to contribute funds or services to such organization; or (B) to advise, counsel or urge any person, with knowledge or notice that such person is a member of such organization, to perform, or to omit to perform, any act if such act or omission would constitute a violation of any provision of subparagraph (1) of this subsection.

(b) The Secretary of Defense is authorized and directed to designate and proclaim, and from time to time revise, a list of facilities, as defined in paragraph (7) of section 3 of this title, with respect to the operation of which he finds and determines that the security of the United States requires the application of the provisions of subsection (a) of this section. The Secretary shall cause such list as designated and proclaimed, or any revision thereof, to be promptly published in the Federal Register, and shall promptly notify the management of any facility so listed; whereupon such management shall immediately post conspicuously, and thereafter while so listed keep posted, notice of such designation in such form and in such place or places as to give reasonable notice thereof to all employees of, and to all applicants for employment in, such facility.

(c) As used in this section, the term ''member'' shall not include any individual whose name has not been made public because of the prohibition contained in section 9(b) of this title.

Denial of Passports to Members of Communist Organizations

Sec. 6. (a) When a Communist organization as defined in paragraph (5) of section 3 of this title is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring such organization to register, it shall be unlawful for any member of such organization, with knowledge or notice that such organization is so registered or that such order has become final-

(1) to make application for a passport, or the renewal of a passport, to be issued or renewed by or under the authority of the United States; or

(2) to use or attempt to use any such passport.
(b) When an organization is registered, or there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring an organization to register, as a Communist-action organization, it shall be unlawful for any officer or employee of the United States to issue a passport to, or renew the passport of, any individual knowing or having reason to believe that such individual is a member of such organization.
(c) As used in this section, the term ''member'' shall not include any individual whose name has not been made public because of the prohibition contained in section 9(b) of this title.

Registration and Annual Reports of Communist Organizations
Sec. 7. (a) Each Communist-action organization (including any organization required, by a final order of the Board, to register as a Communist-action organization) shall, within the time specified in subsection (c) of this section, register with the Attorney General, on a form prescribed by him by regulations, as a Communist-action organization.
(b) Each Communist-front organization (including any organization required, by a final order of the Board, to register as a Communist-front organization) shall, within the time specified in subsection (c) of this section, register with the Attorney General, on a form prescribed by him by regulations, as a Communist-front organization.
(c) The registration required by subsection (a) or (b) shall be made-
(1) in the case of an organization which is a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization on the date of the enactment of this title, within thirty days after such date;
(2) in the case of an organization becoming a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization after the date of the enactment of this title, within thirty days after such organization becomes a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be; and
(3) in the case of an organization which by a final order of the Board is required to register, within thirty days after such order becomes final.
(d) The registration made under subsection (a) or (b) shall be accompanied by a registration statement, to be prepared and filed in such manner and form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, containing the following information:
(1) The name of the organization and the address of its principal office.
(2) The name and last-known address of each individual who is at the time of filing of such registration statement, and of each individual who was at any time during the period of twelve full calendar months next preceding the filing of such statement, an officer of the organization, with the designation or title of the office so held, and with a brief statement of the duties and functions of such individual as such officer.
(3) An accounting, in such form and detail as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, of all moneys received and expended (including the sources from which received and the purposes for which expended) by the organization during the period of twelve full calendar months next preceding the filing of such statement.
(4) In the case of a Communist-action organization, the name and last-known address of each individual who was a member of the organization at any time during the period of twelve full calendar months preceding the filing of such statement.
(5) In the case of any officer or member whose name is required to be shown in such statement, and who uses or has used or who is or has been known by more than one name, each name which such officer or member uses or has used or by which he is known or has been known.
(e) It shall be the duty of each organization registered under this section to file with the Attorney General on or before February 1 of the year following the year in which it registers, and on or before February 1 of each succeeding year, an annual report, prepared and filed in such manner and form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, containing the same information which by subsection (d) is required to be included in a registration statement, except that the information required with respect to the twelve-month period referred to in paragraph (2), (3), or (4) of such subsection shall, in such annual report, be given with respect to the calendar year preceding the February 1 on or before which such annual report must be filed.
(f) (1) It shall be the duty of each organization registered under this section to keep, in such manner and form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, accurate records and accounts of moneys received and expended (including the sources from which received and purposes for which expended) by such organization.
(2) It shall be the duty of each Communist-action organization registered under this section to keep, in such manner and form as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, accurate records of the names and addresses of the members of such organization and of persons who actively participate in the activities of such organization.
(g) It shall be the duty of the Attorney General to send to each individual listed in any registration statement or annual report, filed under this section, as an officer or member of the organization in respect of which such registration statement or annual report was filed, a notification in writing that such individual is so listed; and such notification shall be sent at the earliest practicable time after the filing of such registration statement or annual report. Upon written request of any individual so notified who denies that he holds any office or membership (as the case may be) in such organization, the Attorney General shall forthwith initiate and conclude at the earliest practicable time an appropriate investigation to determine the truth or falsity of such denial, and, if the Attorney General shall be satisfied that such denial is correct, he shall thereupon strike from such registration statement or annual report the name of such individual. If the Attorney General shall decline or fail to strike the name of such individual from such registration statement or annual report within five months after receipt of such written request, such individual may file with the Board a petition for relief pursuant to section 13 (b) of this title.
(h) In the case of failure on the part of any organization to register or to file any registration statement or annual report as required by this section, it shall be the duty of the executive officer (or individual performing the ordinary and usual duties of an executive officer) and of the secretary (or individual performing the ordinary and usual duties of a secretary) of such organization, and of such officer or officers of such organization as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe, to register for such organization, to file such registration statement, or to file such annual report, as the case may be.

Registration of Members of Communist-Action Organizations
Sec. 8. (a) Any individual who is or becomes a member of any organization concerning which (1) there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring such organization to register under section 7 (a) of this title as a Communist-action organization, (2) more than thirty days have elapsed since such order has become final, and (3) such organization is not registered under section 7 of this title as a Communist-action organization, shall within sixty days after said order has become final, or within thirty days after becoming a member of such organization, whichever is later, register with the Attorney General as a member of such organization.
(b) Each individual who is or becomes a member of any organization which he knows to be registered as a Communist-action organization under section 7(a) of this title, but to have failed to include his name upon the list of members thereof filed with the Attorney General, pursuant to the provisions of subsections (d) and (e) of section 7 of this title, shall, within sixty days after he shall have obtained such knowledge, register with the Attorney General as a member of such organization.
(c) The registration made by any individual under subsection (a) or (b) of this section shall be accompanied by a registration statement to be prepared and filed in such manner and form, and containing such information, as the Attorney General shall by regulations prescribe.

Keeping of Registers; Public Inspection; Reports to President and Congress
Sec. 9. (a) The Attorney General shall keep and maintain separately in the Department of Justice-
(1) a ''Register of Communist-Action Organizations'', which shall include (A) the names and addresses of all Communist-action organizations registered under section 7, (B) the registration statements and annual reports filed by such organizations thereunder, and (C) the registration statements filed by individuals under section 8; and
(2) a ''Register of Communist-Front Organizations'', which shall include (A) the names and addresses of all Communist-front organizations registered under section 7, and (B) the registration statements and annual reports filed by such organizations thereunder.
(b) Such registers shall be kept and maintained in such manner as to be open for public inspection: Provided, That the Attorney General shall not make public the name of any individual listed in either such register as an officer or member of any Communist organization until sixty days shall have elapsed after the transmittal of the notification required by section 7 (g) to be sent to such individual, and if prior to the end of such period such individual shall make written request to the Attorney General for the removal of his name from any such list, the Attorney General shall not make public the name of such individual until six months shall have elapsed after receipt of such request by the Attorney General, or until thirty days shall have elapsed after the Attorney General shall have denied such request and shall have transmitted to such individual notice of such denial, whichever is earlier.
(c) The Attorney General shall submit to the President and to the Congress on or before June 1 of each year (and at any other time when requested by either House by resolution) a report with respect to the carrying out of the provisions of this title, including the names and addresses of the organizations listed in such registers and (except to the extent prohibited by subsection (b) of this section) the names and addresses of the individuals listed as members of such organizations.
(d) Upon the registration of each Communist organization under the provisions of this title, the Attorney General shall publish in the Federal Register the fact that such organization has registered as a Communist-action organization, or as a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, and the publication thereof shall constitute notice to all members of such organization that such organization has so registered.
Use of the Mails and Instrumentalities of Interstate or Foreign Commerce
Sec. 10. It shall be unlawful for any organization which is registered under section 7, or for any organization with respect to which there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring it to register under section 7, or for any person acting for or on behalf of any such organization-
(1) to transmit or cause to be transmitted, through the United States mails or by any means or instrumentality of interstate or foreign commerce, any publication which is intended to be, or which it is reasonable to believe is intended to be, circulated or disseminated among two or more persons, unless such publication, and any envelope, wrapper, or other container in which it is mailed or otherwise circulated or transmitted, bears the following, printed in such manner as may be provided in regulations prescribed by the Attorney General, with the name of the organization appearing in lieu of the blank: ''Disseminated by ____________, a Communist organization''; or
(2) to broadcast or cause to be broadcast any matter over any radio or television station in the United States, unless such matter is preceded by the following statement, with the name of the organization being stated in place of the blank: ''The following program is sponsored by ____________, a Communist organization''.

Denial of Tax Deductions and Exemptions
Sec. 11. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no deduction for Federal income-tax purposes shall be allowed in the case of a contribution to or for the use of any organization if at the time of the making of such contribution (1) such organization is registered under section 7, or (2) there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring such organization to register under section 7.
(b) No organization shall be entitled to exemption from Federal income tax, under section 101 of the Internal Revenue Code, for any taxable year if at any time during such taxable year (1) such organization is registered under section 7, or (2) there is in effect a final order of the Board requiring such organization to register under section 7.

Subversive Activities Control Board
Sec. 12. (a) There is hereby established a board, to be known as the Subversive Activities Control Board, which shall be composed of five members, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Not more than three members of the Board shall be members of the same political party. Two of the original members shall be appointed for a term of one year, two for a term of two years, and one for a term of three years, but their successors shall be appointed for terms of three years each, except that any individual chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of the member whom he shall succeed. The President shall designate one member to serve as Chairman of the Board. Any member of the Board may be removed by the President, upon notice and hearing, for neglect of duty or malfeasance in office, but for not other cause.
(b) A vacancy in the Board shall not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise all the powers of the Board, and three members of the Board shall, at all times, constitute a quorum. The Board shall have an official seal which shall be judicially noticed.
(c) The Board shall at the close of each fiscal year make a report in writing to the Congress and to the President stating in detail the cases it has heard, the decisions it has rendered, the names, salaries, and duties of all employees of the Board, and an account of all moneys it has disbursed.
(d) Each member of the Board shall receive a salary of $12,500 a year, shall be eligible for reappointment, and shall not engage in any other business, vocation, or employment.
(e) It shall be the duty of the Board-
(1) upon application made by the Attorney General under section 13(a) of this title, or by any organization under section 13(b) of this title, to determine whether any organization is a ''Communist-action organization'' within the meaning of paragraph (3) of section 3 of this title, or a ''Communist-front organization'' within the meaning of paragraph (4) of section 3 of this title; and
(2) upon application made by the Attorney General under section 13(a) of this title, or by any individual under section 13(b) of this title, to determine whether any individual is a member of any Communist-action organization registered, or by final order of the Board required to be registered, under section 7(a) of this title.
(f) Subject to the civil-service laws and Classification Act of 1949, the Board may appoint and fix the compensation of a chief clerk and such examiners and other personnel as may be necessary for the performance of its functions.
(g) The Board may make such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this title, as may be necessary for the performance of its duties.
(h) There are hereby authorized to be appropriated to the Board such sums as may be necessary to carry out its functions.

Proceedings before Board
Sec. 13. (a) Whenever the Attorney General shall have reason to believe that any organization which has not registered under subsection (a) or subsection (b) of section 7 of this title is in fact an organization of a kind required to be registered under such subsection, or that any individual who has not registered under section 8 of this title is in fact required to register under such section, he shall file with the Board and serve upon such organization or individual a petition for an order requiring such organization or individual to register pursuant to such subsection or section, as the case may be. Each such petition shall be verified under oath, and shall contain a statement of the facts upon which the Attorney General relies in support of his prayer for the issuance of such order.
(b) Any organization registered under subsection (a) or subsection (b) of section 7 of this title, and any individual registered under section 8 of this title, may, not oftener than once in each calendar year, make application to the Attorney General for the cancellation of such registration and (in the case of such organization) for relief from obligation to make further annual reports. Within sixty days after the denial of any such application by the Attorney General, the organization or individual concerned may file with the Board and serve upon the Attorney General a petition for an order requiring the cancellation of such registration (in the case of such organization) relieving such organization of obligation to make further annual reports. Any individual authorized by section 7(g) of this title to file a petition for relief may file with the Board and serve upon the Attorney General a petition for an order requiring the Attorney General to strike his name from the registration statement or annual report upon which it appears.
(c) Upon the filing of any petition pursuant to subsection (a) or subsection (b) of this section, the Board (or any member thereof or any examiner designated thereby) may hold hearings, administer oaths and affirmations, may examine witnesses and receive evidence at any place in the United States, and may require by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, correspondence, memoranda, and other records deemed relevant, to the matter under inquiry. Subpenas may be signed and issued by any member of the Board or any duly authorized examiner. Subpenas shall be issued on behalf of the organization or the individual who is a party to the proceeding upon request and upon a statement or showing of general relevance and reasonable scope of the evidence sought. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of such documentary evidence may be required from any place in the United States at any designated place of hearing. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage paid witnesses in the district courts of the United States. In case of disobedience to a subpena, the Board may invoke the aid of any court of the United States in requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of documentary evidence. Any of the district courts of the United States within the jurisdiction of which such inquiry is carried on may, in case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any person, issue an order requiring such person to appear (and to produce documentary evidence if so ordered) and give evidence relating to the matter in question; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof. All process in any such case may be served in the judicial district whereof such person is an inhabitant or wherever he may be found. No person shall be held liable in any action in any court, State or Federal, for any damages resulting from (1) his production of any documentary evidence in any proceeding before the Board if he is required, by a subpena issued under this subsection, to produce the evidence; or (2) any statement under oath he makes in answer to a question he is asked while testifying before the Board in response to a subpena issued under this subsection, if the statement is pertinent to the question.
(d) (1) All hearings conducted under this section shall be public. Each party to such proceeding shall have the right to present its case with the assistance of counsel, to offer oral or documentary evidence, to submit rebuttal evidence, and to conduct such cross-examination as may be required for a full and true disclosure of the facts. An accurate stenographic record shall be taken of the testimony of each witness, and a transcript of such testimony shall be filed in the office of the Board.
(2) Where an organization or individual declines or fails to appear at a hearing accorded to such organization or individual by the Board pursuant to this section, the Board may, without further proceedings and without the introduction of any evidence, enter an order requiring such organization or individual to register or denying the application of such organization or individual, as the case may be. Where in the course of any hearing before the Board or any examiner thereof a party or counsel is guilty of misbehavior which obstructs the hearing, such party or counsel may be excluded from further participation in the hearing.
(e) In determining whether any organization is a ''Communist-action organization'', the Board shall take into consideration-
(1) the extent to which its policies are formulated and carried out and its activities performed, pursuant to directives or to effectuate the policies of the foreign government or foreign organization in which is vested, or under the domination or control of which is exercised, the direction and control of the world Communist movement referred to in section 2 of this title; and
(2) the extent to which its views and policies do not deviate from those of such foreign government or foreign organization; and
(3) the extent to which it receives financial or other aid, directly or indirectly, from or at the direction of such foreign government or foreign organization; and
(4) the extent to which it sends members or representatives to any foreign country for instruction or training in the principles, policies, strategy, or tactics of such world Communist movement; and
(5) the extent to which it reports to such foreign government or foreign organization or to its representatives; and
(6) the extent to which its principal leaders or a substantial number of its members are subject to or recognize the disciplinary power of such foreign government or foreign organization or its representatives; and
(7) the extent to which, for the purpose of concealing foreign direction, domination, or control, or of expediting or promoting it objectives, (i) it fails to disclose, or resists efforts to obtain information as to, its membership (by keeping membership lists in code, by instructing members to refuse to acknowledge membership, or by any other method); (ii) its members refuse to acknowledge membership therein; (iii) it fails to disclose, or resists efforts to obtain information as to, records other than membership lists; (iv) its meetings are secret; and (v) it otherwise operates on a secret basis; and
(8) the extent to which its principal leaders or a substantial number of its members consider the allegiance they owe to the United States as subordinate to their obligations to such foreign government or foreign organization.
(f) In determining whether any organization is a ''Communist-front organization'', the Board shall take into consideration-
(1) the extent to which persons who are active in its management, direction, or supervision, whether or not holding office therein, are active in the management, direction, or supervision of, or as representatives of, any Communist-action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2; and
(2) the extent to which its support, financial or otherwise, is derived from any Communist-action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2; and
(3) the extent to which its funds, resources, or personnel are used to further or promote the objectives of any Communist-action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2; and
(4) the extent to which the positions taken of advanced by it from time to time on matters of policy do not deviate from those of any Communist-action organization, Communist foreign government, or the world Communist movement referred to in section 2.
(g) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (a) of this section, the Board determines-
(1) that an organization is a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and cause to be served on such organization an order requiring such organization to register as such under section 7 of this title; or
(2) that an individual is a member of a Communist-action organization (including an organization required by final order of the Board to register under section 7(a)), it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and cause to be served on such individual an order requiring him to register as such under section 8 of this title.
(h) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (a) of this section, the Board determines-
(1) that an organization is not a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney General an order denying his petition for an order requiring such organization to register as such under section 7 of this title; and send a copy of such order to such organization; or
(2) that an individual is not a member of any Communist-action organization, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney General an order denying his petition for an order requiring such individual to register as such member under section 8 of this title; and send a copy of such order to such individual.
(i) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (b) of this section, the Board determines-
(1) that an organization is not a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney General an order requiring him to cancel the registration of such organization and relieve it from the requirement of further annual reports; and send a copy of such order to such organization; or
(2) that an individual is not a member of any Communist-action organization, or (in the case of an individual listed as an officer of a Communist-front organization) that an individual is not an officer of a Communist-front organization, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts; issue and cause to be served upon the Attorney General an order requiring him to (A) strike the name of such individual from the registration statement or annual report upon which it appears or (B) cancel the registration of such individual under section 8, as may be appropriate; and send a copy of such order to such individual.
(j) If, after hearing upon a petition filed under subsection (b) of this section, the Board determines-
(1) that an organization is a Communist-action organization or a Communist-front organization, as the case may be, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts shall issue and cause to be served on such organization an order denying its petition for the cancellation of its registration and for the relief from the requirement of further annual reports; or
(2) that an individual is a member of a Communist-action organization, or (in the case of an individual listed as a officer of a Communist-front organization) that an individual is an officer of a Communist-front organization, it shall make a report in writing in which it shall state its findings as to the facts and shall issue and cause to be served on such individual an order denying his petition for an order requiring the Attorney General (A) to strike his name from any registration statement or annual report on which it appears or (B) to cancel the registration of such individual under section 8, as the case may be.
(k) When any order of the Board requiring registration of a Communist organization becomes final under the provisions of section 14 (b) of this title, the Board shall publish in the Federal Register the fact that such order has become final, and publication thereof shall constitute notice to all members of such organization that such order has become final.

Judicial Review
Sec. 14. (a) The party aggrieved by any order entered by the Board under subsection (g), (h), (i) or (j) of section 13 may obtain a review of such order by filing in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, within sixty days from the date of service upon it of such order, a written petition praying that the order of the Board be set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith served upon the Board, and thereupon the Board shall certify and file in the court a transcript of the entire record in the proceeding, including all evidence taken and the report and order of the Board. Thereupon the court shall have jurisdiction of the proceeding and shall have power to affirm or set aside the order of the Board; but the court may in its discretion and upon its own motion transfer any action so commenced to the United States Court of Appeals for the circuit wherein the petitioner resides. The findings of the Board as to the facts, if supported by the preponderance of the evidence, shall be conclusive. If either party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Board and to be adduced upon the proceeding in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to the court may seem proper. The Board may modify its findings as to the facts, by reason of the additional evidence so taken, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which, if supported by the preponderance of the evidence shall be conclusive, and its recommendations, if any, with respect to action in the matter under consideration. If the court shall set aside an order issued under subsection (j) of section 13 it may, in the case of an organization, enter a judgment canceling the registration of such organization and relieving it from the requirement of further annual reports, or in the case of an individual, enter a judgment requiring the Attorney General (A) to strike the name of such individual from the registration statement or annual report on which it appears, or (B) cancel the registration of such individual under section 8, as may be appropriate. The judgment and decree of the court shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court upon certiorari, as provided in title 28, United States Code, section 1254.
(b) Any order of the Board issued under section 13 shall become final-
(1) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for review, if no such petition has been duly filed within such time; or
(2) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for certiorari, if the order of the Board has been affirmed or the petition for review dismissed by a United States Court of Appeals, and no petition for certiorari has been duly filed; or
(3) upon the denial of a petition for certiorari, if the order of the Board has been affirmed or the petition for review dismissed by a United States Court of Appeals; or
(4) upon the expiration of ten days from the date of issuance of the mandate of the Supreme Court, if such Court directs that the order of the Board be affirmed or the petition for review dismissed.

Penalties
Sec. 15. (a) If there is in effect with respect to any organization or individual a final order of the Board requiring registration under section 7 or section 8 of this title-
(1) such organization shall, upon conviction of failure to register, to file any registration statement or annual report, or to keep records as required by section 7, be punished for each such offense by a fine of not more than $10,000, and
(2) each individual having a duty under subsection (h) of section 7 to register or to file any registration statement or annual report on behalf of such organization, and each individual having a duty to register under section 8, shall, upon conviction of failure to so register or to file any such registration statement or annual report, be punished for each such offense by a fine of not more than $10,000, or imprisonment for not more than five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment.
For the purposes of this subsection, each day of failure to register, whether on the part of the organization or any individual, shall constitute a separate offense.
(b) Any individual who, in a registration statement or annual report filed under section 7 or section 8, willfully makes any false statement or willfully omits to state any fact which is required to be stated, or which is necessary to make the statements made or information given not misleading, shall upon conviction thereof be punished for each such offense by a fine of not more than $10,000, or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment. For the purposes of this subsection-
(1) each false statement willfully made, and each willful omission to state any fact which is required to be stated, or which is necessary to make the statements made or information given not misleading, shall constitute a separate offense; and
(2) each listing of the name or address of any one individual shall be deemed to be a separate statement.
(c) Any organization which violates any provision of section 10 of this title shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for each such violation by a fine of not more than $10,000. Any individual who violates any provision of section 5, 6, or 10 of this title shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for each such violation by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or by both such fine and imprisonment.

Applicability of Administrative Procedure Act
Sec. 16. Nothing in this title shall be held to make the provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act inapplicable to the exercise of functions, or the conduct of proceedings, by the Board under this title.
Existing Criminal Statutes
Sec. 17. The foregoing provisions of this title shall be construed as being in addition to and not in modification of existing criminal statutes.
Amending Title 18, Section 793, United States Code
Sec. 18. Title 18, United States Code, section 793, be and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows:
''Section 793. Gathering, transmitting, or losing defense information
''(a) Whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information is to be used to the injury of the United States, or to the advantage of any foreign nation, goes upon, enters, flies over, or otherwise obtains information concerning any vessel, aircraft, work of defense, navy yard, naval station, submarine base, fueling station, fort, battery, torpedo station, dockyard, canal, railroad, arsenal, camp, factory, mine, telegraph, telephone, wireless, or signal station, building, office, research laboratory or station or other place connected with the national defense owned or constructed, or in progress of construction by the United States or under the control of the United States or of any of its officers, departments, or agencies, or within the exclusive jurisdiction of the United States, or any place in which any vessel, aircraft, arms, munitions, or other materials or instruments for use in time of war are being made, prepared, repaired, stored, or are the subject of research or development, under any contract or agreement with the United States, or any department or agency thereof, or with any person on behalf of the United States, or otherwise on behalf of the United States, or any prohibited place so designated by the President by proclamation in time of war or in case of national emergency in which anything for the use of the Army, Navy, or Air Force is being prepared or constructed or stored, information as to which prohibited place the President has determined would be prejudicial to the national defense; or
''(b) Whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, and with like intent or reason to believe, copies, takes, makes, or obtains, or attempts to copy, take, make, or obtain, any sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, document, writing, or note of anything connected with the national defense; or
''(c) Whoever, for the purpose aforesaid, receives or obtains or agrees or attempts to receive or obtain from any person, or from any source whatever, any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note, of anything connected with the national defense, knowing or having reason to believe, at the time he receives or obtains, or agrees or attempts to receive or obtain it, that it has been or will be obtained, taken, made, or disposed of by any person contrary to the provisions of this chapter; or
''(d) Whoever, lawfully having possession of, access to, control over, or being entrusted with any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense, or information relating to the national defense which information the possessor has reason to believe could be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation, willfully communicates, delivers, transmits or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it on demand to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; or
''(e) Whoever having unauthorized possession of, access to, or control over any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, or note relating to the national defense, or information relating to the national defense which information the possessor has reason to believe could be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation, willfully communicates, delivers, transmits or causes to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted, or attempts to communicate, deliver, transmit or cause to be communicated, delivered, or transmitted the same to any person not entitled to receive it, or willfully retains the same and fails to deliver it to the officer or employee of the United States entitled to receive it; or
''(f) Whoever, being entrusted with or having lawful possession or control of any document, writing, code book, signal book, sketch, photograph, photographic negative, blueprint, plan, map, model, instrument, appliance, note, or information, relating to the national defense, (1) through gross negligence permits the same to be removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or to be lost, stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, or (2) having knowledge that the same has been illegally removed from its proper place of custody or delivered to anyone in violation of his trust, or lost, or stolen, abstracted, or destroyed, and fails to make prompt report of such loss, theft, abstraction, or destruction to his superior officer-
''Shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.
''(g) If two or more persons conspire to violate any of the foregoing provisions of this section, and one or more of such persons do any act to effect the object of the conspiracy, each of the parties to such conspiracy shall be subject to the punishment provided for the offense which is the object of such conspiracy.''
Period of Limitation
Sec. 19. An indictment for any violation of title 18, United States Code, section 792, 793, or 794, other than a violation constituting a capital offense, may be found at any time within ten years next after such violation shall have been committed. This section shall not authorize prosecution, trial, or punishment for any offense now barred by the provisions of existing law.
Amending Act of June 8, 1938
Sec. 20. The Act of June 8, 1938 (52 Stat. 631; 22 U.S.C. 611-621), entitled ''An Act to require the registration of certain persons employed by agencies to disseminate propaganda in the United States, and for other purposes'', as amended, is hereby further amended as follows:
(a) Strike out the word ''and'' at the end of section 1(c) (3), insert the word ''and'' at the end of section 1(c) (4), and add the following paragraph immediately after section 1(c) (4):
''(5) any person who has knowledge of or has received instruction or assignment in the espionage, counterespionage, or sabotage service or tactics of a government of a foreign country or of a foreign political party, unless such knowledge, instruction, or assignment has been acquired by reason of civilian, military, or police service with the United States Government, the governments of the several States, their political subdivisions, the District of Columbia, the Territories, the Canal Zone, or the insular possessions, or unless such knowledge has been acquired solely by reason of academic or personal interest not under the supervision of or in preparation for service with the government of a foreign country or a foreign political party or unless, by reason of employment at any time by an agency of the United States Government having responsibilities in the field of intelligence, such person has made full written disclosure of such knowledge or instruction to officials within such agency, such disclosure has been made a matter of record in the files of such agency, and a written determination has been made by the Attorney General or the Director of Central Intelligence that registration would not be in the interest of national security;''.
(b) Add the following subsection immediately after section 8 (d):
''(e) Failure to file any such registration statement or supplements thereto as is required by either section 2 (a) or section 2 (b) shall be considered a continuing offense for as long as such failure exists, notwithstanding any statute of limitation or other statute to the contrary.''
Security Regulations and Orders and Penalty for Violation Thereof
Sec. 21. (a) Whoever willfully shall violate any such regulation or order as, pursuant to lawful authority, shall be or has been promulgated or approved by the Secretary of Defense, or by any military commander designated by the Secretary of Defense, or by the Director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, for the protection or security of military or naval aircraft, airports, airport facilities, vessels, harbors, ports, piers, water-front facilities, bases, forts, posts, laboratories, stations, vehicles, equipment, explosives, or other property or places subject to the jurisdiction, administration, or in the custody of the Department of Defense, any Department or agency of which said Department consists, or any officer or employee of said Department or agency, or of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics or any officer or employee thereof, relating to fire hazards, fire protection, lighting, machinery, guard service, disrepair, disuse or other unsatisfactory conditions thereon, or the ingress thereto or egress or removal of persons therefrom, or otherwise providing for safeguarding the same against destruction, loss, or injury by accident or by enemy action, sabotage or other subversive actions, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be liable to a fine of not to exceed $5,000 or to imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
(b) Every such regulation or order shall be posted in conspicuous and appropriate places.
Amending Act of October 16, 1918
Sec. 22. The Act of October 16, 1918, as amended (40 Stat. 1012, 41 Stat. 1008, 54 Stat. 673; 8 U.S.C. 137), be, and the same is hereby, amended to read as follows: ''That any alien who is a member of any one of the following classes shall be excluded from admission into the United States:
''(1) Aliens who seek to enter the United States whether solely, principally, or incidentally, to engage in activities which would be prejudicial to the public interest, or would endanger the welfare or safety of the United States;
''(2) Aliens who, at any time, shall be or shall have been members of any of the following classes:
''(A) Aliens who are anarchists;
''(B) Aliens who advocate or teach, or who are members of or affiliated with any organization that advocates or teaches, opposition to all organized government;
''(C) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with (i) the Communist Party of the United States, (ii) any other totalitarian party of the United States, (iii) the Communist Political Association, (iv) the Communist or other totalitarian party of any State of the United States, of any foreign state, or of any political or geographical subdivision of any foreign state; (v) any section, subsidiary, branch, affiliate, or subdivision of any such association or party; or (vi) the direct predecessors or successors of any such association or party, regardless of what name such group or organization may have used, may now bear, or may hereafter adopt;
''(D) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph (2) who advocate the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism or the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism, or who are members of or affiliated with any organization that advocates the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism, or the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism, either through its own utterances or through any written or printed publications issued or published by or with the permission or consent of or under the authority of such organization or paid for by the funds of such organization;
''(E) Aliens not within any of the other provisions of this paragraph (2), who are members of or affiliated with any organization which is registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, unless such aliens establish that they did not know or have reason to believe at the time they became members of or affiliated with such an organization (and did not thereafter and prior to the date upon which such organization was so registered or so required to be registered acquire such knowledge or belief) that such organization was a Communist organization.
''(F) Aliens who advocate or teach or who are members of or affiliated with any organization that advocates or teaches (i) the overthrow by force or violence or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers (either of specific individuals or of officers generally) of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government, because of his or their official character; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; or (iv) sabotage;
''(G) Aliens who write or publish, or cause to be written or published, or who knowingly circulate, distribute, print, or display, or knowingly cause to be circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or who knowingly have in their possession for the purpose of circulation, publication, or display, any written or printed matter, advocating or teaching opposition to all organized government, or advocating (i) the overthrow by force or violence or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer of officers (either of specific individuals or of officers generally) or the Government of the United States or of any other organized government; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; or (iv) sabotage; or (v) the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism or the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism.
''(H) Aliens who are members of or affiliated with any organization that writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, issue, or display, any written or printed matter of the character described in subparagraph (G).
''(3) Aliens with respect to whom there is reason to believe that such aliens would, after entry, be likely to (A) engage in activities which would be prohibited by the laws of the United States relating to espionage, sabotage, public disorder, or in other activity subversive to the national security; (B) engage in any activity a purpose of which is the opposition to, or the control or overthrow of, the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unconstitutional means; or (C) organize, join, affiliate with, or participate in the activities of any organization which is registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950.
''Sec. 2. The provision of paragraph (2) of section 1 shall not be applicable to any alien who is seeking to enter the United States temporarily as a nonimmigrant under section 3 (1) or 3 (7) of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended (43 Stat. 153; 8 U.S.C. 201).
''Sec 3. No visa or other documentation shall be issued to any alien who seeks to enter the United States either as an immigrant or as a nonimmigrant if the consular officer knows or has reason to believe that such alien is inadmissible to the United States under this Act. The case of an alien within any of the categories enumerated in section 1 shall not be defined as an emergency case within the meaning of section 30 of the Alien Registration Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 673; 8 U.S.C. 451).
''Sec. 4. (a) Any alien who was at the time of entering the United States, or has been at any time thereafter, a member of any one of the classes of aliens enumerated in section 1(1) or section 1(3) of this Act of (except in the case of an alien who is legally in the United States temporarily as a nonimmigrant under section 3(1) or 3(7) of the Immigration Ac of 1924, as amended) a member of any one of the classes of aliens enumerated in section 1(2) of this Act, shall, upon the warrant of the Attorney General, be taken into custody and deported in the manner provided in the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917. The provisions of this section shall be applicable to the classes of aliens mentioned in this Act, irrespective of the time of their entry into the United States.
''(b) The Attorney General shall, in like manner as provided in subsection (a) of this section, take into custody and deport from the United States any alien who at any time, whether before or after the effective date of this Act, has engaged, or has had a purpose to engage, in any of the activities described in paragraph (1) or in any of the subparagraphs of paragraph (3) of section 1, unless the Attorney General is satisfied, in the case of any alien who engaged in any activity within category (C) of paragraph (3) of section 1 that such alien did not know or have reason to believe at the time such alien became a member of or affiliated with the organization referred to in category (C) of paragraph (3) of section 1 (and did not thereafter and prior to the date upon which such organization was registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950 acquire such knowledge or belief) that such organization was a Communist organization.
''Sec. 5. Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 16 and 17 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 885-887; 8 U.S.C. 152, 153), which relate to boards of special inquiry and to appeal from the decisions of such boards, any alien who may appear to the examining immigration officer at the port of arrival to be excludable under section 1 shall be temporarily excluded, and no further inquiry by a board of special inquiry shall be conducted until after the case is reported to the Attorney General and such an inquiry is directed by the Attorney General. If the Attorney General is satisfied that the alien is excludable under section 1 on the basis of information of a confidential nature, the disclosure of which would be prejudicial to the public interest, safety, or security, he may deny any further inquiry by a board of special inquiry and order such alien to be excluded and deported.
''Sec. 6. (a) The provisions of the seventh proviso to section 3 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 875; 8 U.S.C. 136), relating to the admission of aliens to the United States, shall have no application to cases falling within the purview of section 1 of this Act.
''(b) The provisions of the ninth proviso to section 3 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 875; 8 U.S.C. 136), relating to the temporary admission of aliens to the United States, shall have no application to cases falling within the purview of section 1(1) and 1(3) of this Act. The Attorney General shall make a detailed report to Congress in any case where the authority granted in the ninth proviso above is exercised on behalf of any alien excludable under section 1 (2).
''(c) Notwithstanding the provisions of the tenth proviso to section 3 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 875; 8 U.S.C. 136), or any other law-
''(1) the provisions of section 1 (1) and 1 (3) shall be applicable to any alien within the purview of section 3 (1) of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended (43 Stat. 153; 8 U.S.C. 201), except ambassadors, public ministers, and career diplomatic and consular officers who have been accredited by a foreign government recognized de jure by the United States and who are accepted by the President or the Secretary of State, and the members of the immediate families of such aliens, who shall be subject to exclusion under the provisions of section 1 (1) only pursuant to such rules and regulations as the President may deem to be necessary; and
''(2) the provisions of section 1 (1) shall be applicable to any alien within the purview of section 3 (7) of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended (43 Stat. 153; 8 U.S.C. 201); the provisions of section 1 (3) shall be applicable to any such alien except a designated principal resident representative of a foreign government member of an international organization entitled to enjoy privileges, exemptions, and immunities as an international organization under the International Organizations Immunities Act (59 Stat. 669), accredited resident members of the staff of such representative, and members of his immediate family.
''(d) The proviso to section 15 of the Immigration Act of 1924, as amended (43 Stat. 153; 8 U.S.C. 201), relating to the departure of any alien who has failed to maintain status under section 3 (1) or 3 (7) of said Act shall not be applicable in the case of any alien who would be subject to exclusion under the provisions of section 1 of this Act if he were applying for admission.
''Sec. 7. Upon the notification by the Attorney General that any country upon request denies or unduly delays acceptance of the return of any alien who is a national, citizen, subject or resident thereof, the Secretary of State shall instruct consular officers performing their duties in the territory of such country to discontinue the issuance of immigration visas to nationals, citizens, subjects, or residents of such country, until such time as the Attorney General shall inform the Secretary of State that such country has accepted such alien.
''Sec. 8. (a) Any person who knowingly aids or assists any alien excludable under section 1 to enter the United States, or who connives or conspires with any person or persons to allow, procure, or permit any such alien to enter the United States, shall be guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both.
''(b) Any alien who shall, after he has been excluded and deported or arrested and deported in pursuance of the provisions of this Act, thereafter and without the express authorization of the Attorney General return to or enter the United States or attempt to return to or to enter the United States shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of not more than five years; and shall, upon the termination of such imprisonment, be taken into custody, upon the warrant of the Attorney General, and deported in the manner provided in the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917.
''Sec. 9. Any statute or other authority or provision having the force or effect of law, to the extent that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Act, is hereby expressly declared to be inapplicable to any alien whose case is within the purview of this Act.
''Sec. 10. If any provision of this Act, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remaining provisions of this Act, or the application of such provisions to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.''
Amending Section 20 of Immigration Act of February 5, 1917
Sec. 23. Section 20 of the Immigration Act of February 5, 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 890; 57 Stat. 553; 8 U.S.C. 156), is hereby amended to read as follows:
''Sec. 20. (a) That the deportation of aliens provided for in this Act and all other immigration laws of the United States shall be directed by the Attorney General to the country specified by the alien, if it is willing to accept him into its territory; otherwise such deportation shall be directed by the Attorney General within his discretion and without priority of preference because of their order as herein set forth, either to the country from which such alien last entered the United States; or to the country in which is located the foreign port at which such alien embarked for the United States or for foreign contiguous territory; or to any country in which he resided prior to entering the country from which he entered the United States; or to the country which had sovereignty over the birthplace of the alien at the time of his birth; or to any country of which such an alien is a subject, national, or citizen; to the country in which he was born; or to the country in which the place of his birth is situated at the time he is ordered deported; or, if deportation to any of the said foregoing places or countries is impracticable, inadvisable, or impossible, then to any country which is willing to accept such alien into its territory. If the United States is at war and the deportation, in accordance with the preceding provisions of this section, of any alien who is deportable under any law of the United States, shall be found by the Attorney General to be impracticable or inconvenient because of enemy occupation of the country whence such alien came or wherein is located the foreign port at which he embarked for the United States or because of other reasons connected with the war, such alien may, at the option of the Attorney General, be deported (1) if such alien is a citizen or subject of a country whose recognized government is in exile, to the country wherein is located that government in exile, if that country will permit him to enter its territory; or (2) if such alien is a citizen or subject of a country whose recognized government is not in exile, then, to a country or any political or territorial subdivision thereof which is approximate to the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject, or with the consent of the country of which the alien is a citizen or subject, to any other country. No alien shall be deported under any provisions of this Act to any country in which the Attorney General shall find that such alien would be subjected to physical persecution. If deportation proceedings are instituted at any time within five years after the entry of the alien, such deportation, including one-half of the entire cost of removal to the port of deportation, shall be at the expense of the contractor, procurer, or other person by whom the alien was unlawfully induced to enter the United States or, if that cannot be done, then the cost of removal to the port of deportation shall be at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, and the deportation from such port shall be at the expense of the owner or owners of such vessels or transportation lines by which such aliens respectively came, or, if that is not practicable, at the expense of the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act. If deportation proceedings are instituted later than five years after the entry of the alien, or, if the deportation is made by reason of causes arising subsequent to entry, the cost thereof shall be payable from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act. A failure or refusal on the part of the masters, agents, owners, or consignees of vessels to comply with the order of the Attorney General to take on board, guard safely, and transport to the destination specified any alien ordered to be deported under the provisions of this Act shall be punished by the imposition of the penalties prescribed in section 18 of this Act: Provided, That when in the opinion of the Attorney General the mental or physical condition of such alien is such as to require personal care and attendance, the said Attorney General shall when necessary employ a suitable person for that purpose, who shall accompany such alien to his or her final destination, and the expense incident to such service shall be defrayed in the same manner as the expense of deporting the accompanied alien is defrayed. Pending final determination of the deportability of any alien taken into custody under warrant of the Attorney General, such alien may, in the discretion of the Attorney General (1) be continued in custody; or (2) be released under bond in the amount of not less than $500, with security approved by the Attorney General; or (3) be released on conditional parole. It shall be among the conditions of any such bond, or of the terms of release on parole, that the alien shall be produced, or will produce himself, when required to do so for the purpose of defending himself against the charge or charges under which he was taken into custody and any other charges which subsequently are lodged against him, and for deportation if an order for his deportation has been made. When such an order of deportation has been made against any alien, the Attorney General shall have a period of six months from the date of such order within which to effect the alien's departure from the United States, during which period, at the Attorney General's discretion, the alien may be detained, released on conditional parole, or upon bond in an amount and specifying such conditions for surrender of the alien to the Immigration and Naturalization Service as may be determined by the Attorney General. If deportation has not been practicable, advisable, or possible, or departure of the alien from the United States has not been effected, within six months from the date of the order of deportation the alien shall become subject to such further supervision and detention pending eventual deportation as is authorized hereinafter in this section. The Attorney General is hereby authorized and directed to arrange for appropriate places of detention for those aliens whom he shall take into custody and detain.
''(b) Any alien, against whom an order of deportation, heretofore or hereafter issued, has been outstanding for more than six months shall, pending eventual deportation, be subject to supervision under regulations prescribed by the Attorney General. Such regulations shall require any alien subject to supervision (1) to appear from time to time at specified times or intervals before an officer of the Immigration and Naturalization Service for identification; (2) to submit, if necessary, to medical and psychiatric examination at the expense of the United States; (3) to give information under oath as to his nationality, circumstances, habits, associations, and activities, and such other information whether or not related to the foregoing as the Attorney General may deem fit and proper; and (4) to conform to such reasonable written restrictions on his conduct or activities as are prescribed by the Attorney General in his case. Any alien who shall willfully fail to comply with such regulations, or willfully fail to appear or to give information or submit to medical or psychiatric examination if required, or knowingly give false information in relation to the requirements of such regulations, or knowingly violate a reasonable restriction imposed upon his conduct or activity, shall upon conviction be guilty of a felony, and shall be fined not more than $1,000 or shall be imprisoned not more than one year, or both.
''(c) Any alien against whom an order of deportation is outstanding under (1) the Act of October 16, 1918, as amended (40 Stat. 1012, 41 Stat. 1008, 54 Stat. 673; 8 U.S.C. 137); (2) the Act of February 9, 1909, as amended (35 Stat. 614, 42 Stat. 596; 21 U.S.C. 171, 174-175); (3) the Act of February 18, 1931, as amended (46 Stat. 1171, 54 Stat. 673; 8 U.S.C. 156a); or (4) so much of section 19 of the Immigration Act of 1917, as amended (39 Stat. 889-890; 54 Stat. 671-673, 56 Stat. 1044; 8 U.S.C. 155) as relates to criminals, prostitutes, procurers or other immoral persons, anarchists, subversives and similar classes, who shall willfully fail to refuse to depart from the United States within a period of six months from the date of such order of deportation, or from the date of the enactment of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, whichever is the later, or shall willfully fail or refuse to make timely application in good faith for travel or other documents necessary to his departure, or who shall connive or conspire, or take any other action, designed to prevent or hamper or with the purpose of preventing or hampering his departure pursuant to such order of deportation, or who shall willfully fail or refuse to present himself for deportation at the time and place required by the Attorney General pursuant to such order of deportation, shall upon conviction be guilty of a felony, and shall be imprisoned not more than ten years: Provided, That this subsection shall not make it illegal for any alien to take any proper steps for the purpose of securing cancellation of or exemption from such order of deportation or for the purpose of securing his release from incarceration or custody: Provided further, That the court may for good cause suspend the sentence of such alien and order his release under such conditions as the court may prescribe. In determining whether good cause has been shown to justify releasing the alien, the court shall take into account such factors as (1) the age, health, and period of detention of the alien; (2) the effect upon the national security and public peace or safety; (3) the likelihood of the alien's following a course of conduct which made or would make him deportable; (4) the character of the efforts made by such alien himself and by representatives of the country or countries to which his deportation is directed to expedite the alien's departure from the United States; (5) the reason for the inability of the Government of the United States to secure passports, other travel documents, or deportation facilities from the country or countries to which the alien has been ordered deported; and (6) the eligibility of the alien for discretionary relief under the immigration laws.
''(d) Should any alien subject to the provisions of subsection (c) unlawfully return to the United States after having been released for departure or deported pursuant to this section, the previous warrant of deportation against him shall be considered as reinstated from its original date of issuance.
''(e) If any alien subject to this section is able to depart from the United States, except that he is financially unable to pay his passage, the expense of such passage to the country to which he is destined may be paid from the appropriation for the enforcement of this Act, unless such payment is otherwise provided for under this Act.''
Amending Alien Registration Act of 1940
Sec. 24. (a) Section 35 of the Alien Registration Act of 1940, approved June 28, 1940 (54 Stat. 675; 8 U.S.C. 456), is hereby amended to read as follows:
''Sec. 35. Any alien required to be registered under this title who is an alien resident of the United States on January 1, 1951, and on January 1 of any succeeding year, shall, within ten days following such dates, notify the Commissioner in writing of his current address. In the case of an alien for whom a parent or legal guardian is required to apply for registration, the notice required by this section shall be given by such parent or legal guardian.''
(b) Subsection (b) of section 36 of the said Act is hereby amended to read as follows:
''(b) Any alien, or any parent or legal guardian of any alien, who fails to give written notice to the Commissioner, as required by section 35 of this Act, shall, upon conviction thereof, be fined not to exceed $100 or imprisoned not more than thirty days, or both.''
Amending Section 305 of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 25. Section 305 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is hereby amended to read as follows:
''Sec. 305. (a) No person shall hereafter be naturalized as a citizen of the United States-
''(1) who advocates or teaches, or who is a member of or affiliated with any organization that advocates or teaches, opposition to all organized government; or
''(2) who is a member of or affiliated with any Communist action organization that is registered or required to be registered under the provisions of section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950; or
''(3) who, while not within any of the other provisions of this section, advocates the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism or the economic or governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism, or who is a member of or affiliated with any organization that advocates the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism, or the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism, either through its own utterances or through any written or printed publications issued or published by or with the permission or consent of or under authority of such organization or paid for by the funds of such organization; or
''(4) who advocates or teaches or who is a member of or affiliated with any organization that advocates or teaches (i) the overthrow by force or violence or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers (either of specific individuals or of officers generally) of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government because of his or their official character; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; or (iv) sabotage; or
''(5) who writes or publishes or causes to be written or published, or who knowingly circulates, distributes, prints, or displays, or knowingly causes to be circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or who knowingly has in his possession for the purpose of circulation, publication, or display, any written or printed matter, advocating or teaching opposition to all organized government, or advocating (i) the overthrow by force, violence, or other unconstitutional means of the Government of the United States or of all forms of law; or (ii) the duty, necessity, or propriety of the unlawful assaulting or killing of any officer or officers (either of specific individuals or of officers generally) of the Government of the United States or of any other organized government; or (iii) the unlawful damage, injury, or destruction of property; or (iv) sabotage; or (v) the economic, international, and governmental doctrines of world communism or the economic and governmental doctrines of any other form of totalitarianism; or
''(6) who is a member of or affiliated with any organization that writes, circulates, distributes, prints, publishes, or displays, or causes to be written, circulated, distributed, printed, published, or displayed, or that has in its possession for the purpose of circulation, distribution, publication, issue, or display, any written or printed matter of the character described in subparagraph (5).
''(b) The provisions of this section or of any other section of this Act shall not be construed as declaring that any of the organizations referred to in this section or in any other section of this Act do not advocate the overthrow of the Government of the United States by force, violence, or other unconstitutional means.
''(c) The provisions of this section shall be applicable to any applicant for naturalization who at any time within a period of ten years immediately preceding the filing of the petition for naturalization is, or has been found to be, within any of the classes enumerated within this section, notwithstanding that at the time petition is filed he may not be included within such classes.
''(d) If a person who shall have been naturalized after January 1, 1951, shall within five years next following such naturalization-
''(1) become a member of or affiliated with any organization, membership in or affiliation with which at the time of naturalization would have precluded such person from naturalization under the provisions of this section; or
''(2) become a member of any organization, membership in which at the time of naturalization would have raised the presumption that such person was not attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and not well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States, under the provisions of this section it shall be considered prima facie evidence that such person was not attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and was not well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States at the time of naturalization, and, in the absence of countervailing evidence, it shall be sufficient in the proper proceeding to authorize the revocation and setting aside of the order admitting such person to citizenship and the cancellation of the certificate of naturalization as having been obtained by fraud or illegal procurement.
''(e) Any alien who has been at any time within ten years next preceding the filing of his petition for naturalization, or is at the time of filing such petition, or has been at any time between such filing and the time of taking of the final oath of citizenship, a member of or affiliated with any Communist-front organization which is registered or required to be registered under section 7 of the Subversive Activities Control Act of 1950, shall be presumed to be a person not attached to the principles of the Constitution of the United States and not well disposed to the good order and happiness of the United States, and unless he shall rebut such presumption he shall not be naturalized as a citizen of the United States: Provided, That the provisions of this section shall not apply to any person who shall be a member of or affiliated with any such Communist-front organization who shall, within three months from the date upon which such organization was so registered or so required to be registered, renounce, withdraw from, and utterly abandon such membership or affiliation, and who thereafter ceases entirely to be affiliated with such organization.''
Amending Section 325 of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 26. Section 325 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is hereby amended to read:
Sec. 325. (a) Any periods of time during all of which an alien who was previously lawfully admitted for permanent residence has served honorably or with good conduct, in any capacity other than as a member of the armed forces of the United States, (1) on board a vessel operated by the United States, or an agency thereof, the full legal and equitable title to which is in the United States; or (2) on board a vessel whose home port is in the United States, and (A) which is registered under the laws of the United States, or (B) the full legal and equitable title to which is in a citizen of the United States, or a corporation organized under the laws of any of the several States of the United States, shall be deemed residence within the United States within the meaning of section 307 (a) of this Act, if such service occurred within five years immediately preceding the date such alien shall file a petition for naturalization. Service with good conduct on vessels described in clause (1) of this subsection shall be proved by duly authenticated copies of the records of the executive departments or agency having custody of the records of such service. Service with good conduct on vessels described in clause (2) of this subsection may be proved by certificates from the masters of such vessels.
''(b) Any alien who (1) was excepted from certain requirements of the naturalization laws under the provisions of this section prior to this amendment, and (2) has filed a petition for naturalization under this section prior to the date of approval of this amendment may, if such petition is pending on the date of approval of this section as amended, be naturalized upon compliance with the applicable provisions of the naturalization laws in effect upon the date such petition was filed.''

Amending Section 329 of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 27. Section 329 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is hereby amended by adding a new subsection (c), as follows:
''(c) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, no person shall be naturalized unless he has been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent residence in accordance with all applicable provisions of this Act and of the immigration laws. The burden of proof shall be upon such person to show that he entered the United States lawfully, and the time, place, and manner of such entry into the United States, but in presenting such proof he shall be entitled to the production of his immigration visa, if any, or of other documents concerning such entry, in the custody of the Commissioner. No person shall be naturalized against whom there is outstanding a final finding of deportability, and no petition for naturalization shall be finally heard by a naturalization court if there is pending against the petitioner a deportation proceeding pursuant to a warrant of arrest issued under the provisions of this or any other Act: Provided, That the findings of the Commissioner in terminating deportation proceedings or in suspending the deportation of an alien pursuant to law, shall not be deemed binding in any way upon the naturalization court with respect to the question of whether such person has established his eligibility for naturalization as required by this Act.''

Amending Sections 333 and 334 (B) of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 28. (a) Section 333 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is hereby amended to read:
''Sec. 333. (a) The Commissioner or a Deputy Commissioner shall designate employees of the Service to conduct preliminary examinations upon petitions for naturalization to any naturalization court and to make recommendations thereon to such court. For such purposes any such employee so designated is hereby authorized to take testimony concerning any matter touching or in any way affecting the admissibility of any petitioner for naturalization, to administer oaths, and to require by subpena the attendance and testimony of witnesses, including petitioner, before such employee so designated and the production of relevant books, papers, and documents, and to that end may invoke the aid of any court exercising naturalization jurisdiction as specified in section 301 of this Act; and any such court wherein the petition is filed may, in the event of neglect or refusal to respond to a subpena issued by any such employee so designated or refusal to testify before such employee so designated, issue an order requiring such person to appear before such employee so designated, produce relevant books, papers, and documents if demanded, and testify; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof. The record of the preliminary examination authorized by this subsection shall be admissible as evidence in any final hearing conducted by a naturalization court designated in section 301 of this Act.
''(b) The record of the preliminary examination upon any petition for naturalization may be transmitted to the Commissioner and the recommendation with respect thereto of the employee designated to conduct such preliminary examination shall when made also be transmitted to the Commissioner.
''(c) The recommendation of the employee designated to conduct any such preliminary examination shall be submitted to the court at the hearing upon the petition and shall include a recommendation that the petition be granted, or denied, or continued, with reasons therefor. In any case in which the recommendation of the Commissioner does not agree with that of the employee designated to conduct such preliminary examination, the recommendations of both such employee and the Commissioner shall be submitted to the court at the hearing upon the petition, and the officer of the Service in attendance at such hearing shall, at the request of the court, present both the views of such employee and those of the Commissioner with respect to such petition to the court. The recommendations of such employee and of the Commissioner shall be accompanied by duplicate lists containing the names of the petitioners, classified according to the character of the recommendations, and signed by such employee or the Commissioner, as the case may be. The judge to whom such recommendations are submitted shall, if he approve such recommendations, enter a written order with such exceptions as the judge may deem proper, by subscribing his name to each such list when corrected to conform to his conclusions upon such recommendations. One of each such lists shall thereafter be filed permanently of record in such court and the duplicate of each such list shall be sent by the clerk of such court to the Commissioner.
''(d) After the petition for naturalization has been filed in the office of the clerk of the naturalization court, the petitioner shall not be permitted to withdraw his petition, except with the consent of the Commissioner. In cases where the Commissioner does not consent to withdrawal of the petition, the court shall determine the petition on its merits and enter a final order accordingly. In cases where the petitioner fails to prosecute his petition, the petition shall be decided upon its merits unless the Commissioner moves that the petition be dismissed for lack of prosecution.''
(b) Section 334 (b) of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is amended to read as follows:
''(b) The requirement of subsection (a) of this Section for the examination of the petitioner and witnesses under oath before the court and in the presence of the court shall not apply in any case where a designated examiner has conducted the preliminary examination authorized by subsection (a) of Section 333; except that the court may, in its discretion, and shall, upon the demand of the petitioner, require the examination of the petitioner and the witnesses under oath before the court and in the presence of the court. If the petitioner is prevented by sickness or other disability from being in open court for the final hearing upon petition for naturalization, such final hearing may be had by a judge or judges at such place as may be designated by the court.''
Amending Section 335 of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 29. Section 335 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is amended to read:
''Sec. 335. (a) A person who has petitioned for naturalization shall, before being admitted to citizenship, take in open court one of the oaths set forth in subsection (b) of this section (1) to support the Constitution of the United States; (2) to renounce and abjure absolutely and entirely all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which the petitioner was before a subject or citizen; (3) to support and defend the Constitution and the laws of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; (4) to bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and (5) to bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by law, or to perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by law: Provided, That any such person shall be required to take the oath prescribed in subsection (b) (1) of this section unless by clear and convincing evidence he can show to the satisfaction of the naturalization court that he is opposed to the bearing of arms or the performance of noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States by reason of religious training and belief: Provided further, That in the case of the naturalization of a child under the provisions of section 315 or 316 of this Act the naturalization court may waive the taking of either of such oaths if in the opinion of the court the child is unable to understand their meaning.
''(b) As provided in subsection (a) of this section, the petitioner for naturalization shall take one of the following oaths:
''(1) I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States or perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by law; and that I take this obligation freely without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion: So help me God. In acknowledgment whereof I have hereunto affixed my signature; or
''(2) I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and that I take this obligation freely and without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion: So help me God. In acknowledgment whereof I have hereunto affixed my signature.
''(c) In case the person petitioning for naturalization has borne any hereditary title, or has been of any of the orders of nobility in any foreign state, the petitioner shall in addition to complying with the requirements of subsections (a) and (b) of this section, make under oath in open court to which the petition for naturalization is made, an express renunciation of such title or order of nobility, and such renunciation shall be recorded in the court as a part of such proceedings.
''(d) If the petitioner is prevented by sickness or other disability from being in open court, the oath required to be taken by subsection (a) of this section may be taken before a judge of the court at such place as may be designated by the court.''
Amending Section 304 of Nationality Act of 1940
Sec. 30. Section 304 of the Nationality Act of 1940, as amended, is hereby amended to read as follows:
''Sec. 304. No person except as otherwise provided in this Act shall hereafter be naturalized as a citizen of the United States upon his own petition who cannot demonstrate-
''(1) an understanding of the English language, including an ability to read, write, and speak words in ordinary usage in the English language: Provided, That this requirement shall not apply to any person physically unable to comply therewith, if otherwise qualified to be naturalized, or to any person who, on the date of approval of this amendment, is over fifty years of age and has been legally residing in the United States for twenty years: Provided further, That the requirements of this section relating to ability to read and write shall be met if the applicant can read or write simple words and phrases to the end that a reasonable test of his literacy shall be made and that no extraordinary or unreasonable conditions shall be imposed upon the applicant; and
''(2) a knowledge and understanding of the fundamentals of the history, and the principles and form of government, of the United States.''
Amending Chapter 73, Title 18, United States Code
Sec. 31. (a) Chapter 73 of title 18, United States Code, is amended by inserting, immediately following section 1506 of such chapter, a new section, to be designated as section 1507, and to read as follows: ''Section 1507. Picketing or parading.
''Whoever, with the intent of interfering with, obstructing, or impeding the administration of justice, or with the intent of influencing any judge, juror, witness, or court officer, in the discharge of his duty, pickets or parades in or near a building housing a court of the United States, or in or near a building or residence occupied or used by such judge, juror, witness, or court officer, or with such intent uses any sound-truck or similar device or resorts to any other demonstration in or near any such building or residence, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.
''Nothing in this section shall interfere with or prevent the exercise by any court of the United States of its power to punish for contempt.''
(b) The analysis of such chapter is amended by inserting, immediately after and underneath item 1506, as contained in such analysis, the following new item: ''1507. Picketing or parading.''
Separability of Provisions
Sec. 32. If any provision of this title, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remaining provisions of this title, or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

TITLE II-EMERGENCY DETENTION
Short Title
Sec. 100. This title may be cited as the ''Emergency Detention Act of 1950''.
Findings of Fact and Declaration of Purpose
Sec. 101. As a result of evidence adduced before various committees of the Senate and the House of Representatives, the Congress hereby finds that-
(1) There exists a world Communist movement which in its origins, its development, and its present practice, is a world-wide revolutionary movement whose purpose it is, by treachery, deceit, infiltration into other groups (governmental and otherwise), espionage, sabotage, terrorism, and any other means deemed necessary, to establish a Communist totalitarian dictatorship in all the countries of the world through the medium of a world-wide Communist organization.
(2) The establishment of a totalitarian dictatorship in any country results in the suppression of all opposition to the party in power, the complete subordination of the rights of individuals to the state, the denial of fundamental rights and liberties which are characteristic of a representative form of government, such as freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, and of religious worship, and results in the maintenance of control over the people through fear, terrorism, and brutality.
(3) The system of government known as a totalitarian dictatorship is characterized by the existence of a single political party, organized on a dictatorial basis, and by substantial identity between such party and its policies and the government and governmental policies of the country in which it exists.
(4) The direction and control of the world Communist movement is vested in and exercised by the Communist dictatorship of a foreign country.
(5) The Communist dictatorship of such foreign country, in exercising such direction and control and in furthering the purposes of the world Communist movement, establishes or causes the establishment of, and utilizes, in various countries, action organizations which are not free and independent organizations, but are sections of a world-wide Communist organization and are controlled, directed, and subject to the discipline of the Communist dictatorship of such foreign country.
(6) The organizations so established and utilized in various countries, acting under such control, direction, and discipline, endeavor to carry out the objectives of the world Communist movement by bringing about the overthrow of existing governments and setting up Communist totalitarian dictatorships which will be subservient to the most powerful existing Communist totalitarian dictatorship. Although such Communist organizations usually designate themselves as political parties, they are in fact constituent elements of the world-wide movement and promote the objectives of such movement by conspiratorial and coercive tactics, and especially by the use of espionage and sabotage, instead of through the democratic processes of a free elective system or through the freedom-preserving means employed by a political party which operates as an agency by which people govern themselves.
(7) In the United States those individuals who knowingly and willfully participate in the world Communist movement, when they so participate, in effect repudiate their allegiance to the United States and in effect transfer their allegiance to the foreign country in which is vested the direction and control of the world Communist movement; and, in countries other than the United States, those individuals who knowingly and willfully participate in such Communist movement similarly repudiate their allegiance to the countries of which they are nationals in favor of such foreign Communist country.
(8) In pursuance of communism's stated objectives, the most powerful existing Communist dictatorship has, by the methods referred to above, already caused the establishment in numerous foreign countries of Communist totalitarian dictatorships, and threatens to establish similar dictatorships in still other countries.
(9) The agents of communism have devised clever and ruthless espionage and sabotage tactics which are carried out in many instances in form or manner successfully evasive of existing law, and which in this country are directed against the safety and peace of the United States.
(10) The experience of many countries in World War II and thereafter with so-called ''fifth columns'' with employed espionage and sabotage to weaken the internal security and defense of nations resisting totalitarian dictatorships demonstrated the grave dangers and fatal effectiveness of such internal espionage and sabotage.
(11) The security and safety of the territory and Constitution of the United States, and the successfully prosecution of the common defense, especially in time of invasion, war, or insurrection in aid of a foreign enemy, require every reasonable and lawful protection against espionage, and against sabotage to national-defense material, premises, forces and utilities, including related facilities for mining, manufacturing, transportation, research, training, military and civilian supply, and other activities essential to national defense.
(12) Due to the wide distribution and complex interrelation of facilities which are essential to national defense and due to the increased effectiveness and technical development in espionage and sabotage activities, the free and unrestrained movement in such emergencies of members or agents of such organizations and of others associated in their espionage and sabotage operations would make adequate surveillance to prevent espionage and sabotage impossible and would therefore constitute a clear and present danger to the public peace and the safety of the United States.
(13) The recent successes of Communist methods in other countries and the nature and control of the world Communist movement itself present a clear and present danger to the security of the United States and to the existence of free American institutions, and make it necessary that Congress, in order to provide for the common defense, to preserve the sovereignty of the United States as an independent nation, and to guarantee to each State a republican form of government, enact appropriate legislation recognizing the existence of such world-wide conspiracy and designed to prevent it from accomplishing its purpose in the United States.
(14) The detention of persons who there is reasonable ground to believe probably will commit or conspire with others to commit espionage or sabotage is, in a time of internal security emergency, essential to the common defense and to the safety and security of the territory, the people and the Constitution of the United States.
(15) It is also essential that such detention in an emergency involving the internal security of the Nation shall be so authorized, executed, restricted and reviewed as to prevent any interference with the constitutional rights and privileges of any persons, and at the same time shall be sufficiently effective to permit the performance by the Congress and the President of their constitutional duties to provide for the common defense, to wage war, and to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution, the Government and the people of the United States.
Declaration of ''Internal Security Emergency''
Sec. 102. (a) In the event of any one of the following:
(1) Invasion of the territory of the United States or its possessions,
(2) Declaration of war by Congress, or
(3) Insurrection within the United States in aid of a foreign enemy, and if, upon the occurrence of one or more of the above, the President shall find that the proclamation of an emergency pursuant to this section is essential to the preservation, protection and defense of the Constitution, and to the common defense and safety of the territory and people of the United States, the President is authorized to make public proclamation of the existence of an ''Internal Security Emergency''.
(b) A state of ''Internal Security Emergency'' (hereinafter referred to as the ''emergency'') so declared shall continue in exercise until terminated by proclamation of the President or by concurrent resolution of the Congress.
Detention during Emergency
Sec. 103. (a) Whenever there shall be in existence such an emergency, the President, acting through the Attorney General, is hereby authorized to apprehend and by order detain, pursuant to the provisions of this title, each person as to whom there is reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or of sabotage.
(b) Any person detained hereunder (hereinafter referred to as ''the detainee'') shall be released from such emergency detention upon-
(1) the termination of such emergency by proclamation of the President or by concurrent resolution of the Congress;
(2) an order of release issued by the Attorney General;
(3) a final order of release after hearing by the Board of Detention Review, hereinafter established;
(4) a final order of release by a United States court, after review of the action of the Board of Detention Review, or upon a writ of habeas corpus.
Procedure for Apprehension and Detention
Sec. 104. (a) The Attorney General, or such officer or officers of the Department of Justice as he may from time to time designate, are authorized during such emergency to execute in writing and to issue-
(1) a warrant for the apprehension of each person as to whom there is reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or sabotage; and
(2) an application for an order to be issued pursuant to subsection (d) of this section for the detention of such person for the duration of such emergency.
Each such warrant shall issue only upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and shall particularly describe the person to be apprehended or detained.
(b) Warrants for the apprehension of persons under this title shall be served and apprehension of such persons shall be made only by such duly authorized officers of the Department of Justice as the Attorney General may designate. A copy of the warrant for apprehension shall be furnished to any person apprehended under this title.
(c) Persons apprehended or detained under this title shall be confined in such places of detention as may be prescribed by the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall provide for all detainees such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodation and supervision as in his judgment may be necessary to accomplish the purpose of this title.
(d) Within forty-eight hours after apprehension, or as soon thereafter as provision for it may be made, each person apprehended pursuant to this section shall be taken before a preliminary hearing officer appointed pursuant to the provisions of this section. Such hearing officer shall inform such person (1) of the grounds upon which application was made for his detention, (2) of his right to retain counsel, (3) of his right to have a preliminary examination, (4) of his right to refrain from making any statement, and (5) of the fact that any statement made by him may be used against him. Such hearing officer shall allow such person reasonable time and opportunity to consult counsel. If such person waives preliminary examination, the hearing officer shall forthwith issue an order for the detention of such person, and furnish to him a copy of such order. If such person does not waive examination, the preliminary hearing officer shall hear evidence within a reasonable time. Such person may introduce evidence in his own behalf, and may cross-examine witnesses against him, except that the Attorney General or his representative shall not be required to furnish information the revelation of which would disclose the identity or evidence of Government agents or officers which he believes it would be dangerous to national safety and security to divulge. Such hearing officer shall record all evidence offered by or on behalf of such person and all objections made by such person to his detention. If from the evidence it appears to the preliminary hearing officer that there is probable cause for the detention of such person pursuant to this title, such hearing officer shall forthwith issue an order for the detention of such person, furnish to him a copy of such order, and advise such person of his right to file with the Detention Review Board established by this title a petition for the review of such order. If from the evidence it appears to the preliminary hearing officer that probable cause for the detention of such person has not been shown, such officer shall issue an order discharging such person from detention, and shall furnish a copy of such order to such person. Upon the entry of such order, such person shall be released from custody by the Attorney General and by any subordinate officer or employee of the United States having custody of such person. Within seven days after the entry of any such order, the preliminary hearing officer shall prepare and transmit to the Attorney General, or such other officer as may be designated by him, (1) a report which shall set forth the result of such preliminary hearing, together with his recommendations with respect to the question whether any order issued for the detention of such person shall be continued in effect or revoked, and (2) any additional written representations or evidence which the detainee or his legal counsel may wish to file with the Attorney General. A copy of such report shall be served promptly upon the detainee or his legal counsel. Preliminary hearing officers may be appointed by the President, without regard to the civil service laws but subject to the Classification Act of 1949, in such numbers, and may serve at such places, as may be necessary for the expeditious consideration of cases involving persons apprehended pursuant to this section. No person who has, within the three years preceding the date of his appointment, served as an officer or employee of the Department of Justice shall be appointed as a preliminary hearing officer.
(e) The Attorney General, or such other officers of the Department of Justice as he may designate, shall upon request of any detainee from time to time receive such additional information bearing upon the grounds for the detention as the detainee or any other person may present in writing. If on the basis of such additional information received by the Attorney General or transmitted to him by such officers, he shall find there is no longer reasonable ground to believe that the detainee probably will engage in, or probably will conspire with others to engage in, acts of espionage or sabotage if released, the Attorney General is authorized to issue an order revoking the initial order or any final Board or court order of detention and to release such detainee. The Attorney General is also authorized to modify the order under which any detainee is detained and apply to such detainee such lesser restrictions in movement and activity as the Attorney General shall determine will serve the purposes of this title.
(f) In case of Board or court review of any detention order, the Attorney General, or such review officers as he may designate, shall present to the Board, the court, and the detainee to the fullest extent possible consistent with national security, the evidence supporting a finding of reasonable ground for detention in respect to the detainee, but he shall not be required to offer or present evidence of any agents or officers of the Government the revelation of which in his judgment would be dangerous to the security and safety of the United States.
(g) The Attorney General is authorized to prescribe such regulations, not inconsistent with the provisions of this title, as he shall deem necessary to promote the effective administration of this title. No such regulation shall require or permit persons detained under the provisions of this title to perform forced labor, or any tasks not reasonably associated with their own comfort and well-being, or to be confined in company with persons who are confined pursuant to the criminal laws of the United States or of any State.
(h) Whenever there shall be in existence an emergency within the meaning of this title, the Attorney General shall transmit bimonthly to the President and to the Congress a report of all action taken pursuant to the powers granted in this title.
Detention Review Board
Sec. 105. (a) The President is hereby authorized to establish a Detention Review Board (referred to in this title as the ''Board'') which shall consist of nine members, not more than five of whom shall be members of the same political party, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. Of the original members of the Board, three shall be appointed for terms of one year each, three for terms of two years each, and three for terms of three years each, but their successors shall be appointed for terms of three years each, subject to termination of the term upon expiration of this title, except that any individual chosen to fill a vacancy shall be appointed only for the unexpired term of the member whom he shall succeed. The President shall designate one member to serve as Chairman of the Board. Any member of the Board may be removed by the President, upon notice and hearing, for neglect of duty or for malfeasance in office, but for no other cause.
(b) The Board is authorized to establish divisions thereof, each of which shall consist of not less than three of the members of the Board. Each such division may be delegated any or all of the powers which the Board may exercise. A vacancy in the Board shall not impair the right of the remaining members to exercise all of the powers of the Board, and five members of the Board shall at all times constitute a quorum of the Board, except that two members shall constitute a quorum of any division established pursuant to this subsection. The Board shall have an official seal which shall be judicially noticed.
(c) At the close of each fiscal year the Board shall make a report in writing to the Congress and to the President stating in detail the cases it has heard, the decisions it has rendered, the names, salaries, and duties of all employees and officers in the employ or under the supervision of the Board, and an account of all moneys it has disbursed.
(d) In the event of a proclamation by the President or a concurrent resolution of the Congress terminating the existence of a state of emergency, and after the release of all detainees and the conclusion of all pending matters before the Board and of all pending appeals in the courts from orders of the Board, the President shall within a reasonable time dissolve and terminate the Board and all of its authority, powers, functions, and duties. Such termination shall not preclude the subsequent establishment by the President, pursuant to this title, of another Board with all of the rights, authority, and duties prescribed by this title, in the event that he shall proclaim another emergency or shall determine that the proclamation of such an emergency may soon be essential to the national security.
Sec. 106. (a) Each member of the Board shall receive a salary of $12,500 a year, shall be eligible for reappointment, and shall not engage in any other business, vocation, or employment. The Board shall appoint an executive secretary, and such attorneys and other employees as it may from time to time find necessary for the proper performance of its duties. The Board may establish or utilize such regional, local, or other agencies, and utilize such voluntary and uncompensated services, as may from time to time be needed.
(b) All of the expenses of the Board, including all necessary traveling and subsistence expenses outside the District of Columbia incurred by the members or employees of the Board under its orders, shall be paid out of appropriations made therefor, and there are hereby authorized to be appropriated, out of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary for that purpose.
Sec. 107. The principal office of the Board shall be in the District of Columbia, but it may meet and exercise any or all of its powers at any other place. The Board may conduct any hearing necessary to its functions in any part of the United States.
Sec. 108. The Board shall have authority from time to time to make, amend, and rescind, in the manner prescribed by the Administrative Procedure Act, such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title. All procedures of the Board shall be subject to the applicable provisions of the Administrative Procedure Act.
Sec. 109. (a) Any Board created under this title is empowered-
(1) to review upon petition of any detainee any order of detention issued pursuant to section 104 (d) of this title;
(2) to determine whether there is reasonable ground to believe that such detainee probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in, espionage or sabotage;
(3) to issue orders confirming, modifying, or revoking any such order of detention; and
(4) to hear and determine any claim made pursuant to this paragraph by any person who shall have been detailed pursuant to this title and shall have been released from such detention, for loss of income by such person resulting from such detention if without reasonable grounds. Upon the issuance of any final order for indemnification pursuant to this paragraph, the Attorney General is authorized and directed to make payment of such indemnity to the person entitled thereto from such funds as may be appropriated to him for such purpose.
(b) Whenever a petition for review of an order for detention issued pursuant to section 104 (d) of this title or for indemnification pursuant to the preceding subsection shall have been filed with the Board in accordance with such regulations as may be prescribed by the Board, the Board shall provide for an appropriate hearing upon due notice to the petitioner and the Attorney General at a place therein fixed, not less than fifteen days after the serving of said notice and not more than forty-five days after the filing of such petition.
(c) In any case arising from a petition for review of an order for detention issued pursuant to section 104 (d) of this title, the Board shall require the Attorney General to inform such detainee of grounds on which his detention was instituted, and to furnish to him as full particulars of the evidence as possible, including the identity of informants, subject to the limitation that the Attorney General may not be required to furnish information the revelation of which would disclose the identity or evidence of Government agents or officers which he believes it would be dangerous to national safety and security to divulge.
(d) (1) Any member of the Board shall have the power to issue subpenas requiring the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of any evidence relating to the matter under review before the Board or any hearing examiner conducting any hearing authorized by this title. Any hearing examiner of the Board may administer oaths and affirmations, examine witnesses, and receive evidence. Such attendance of witnesses and the production of such evidence may be required from any place in the United States or any Territory or possession thereof, at any designated place of hearing.
(2) In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena issued to any person, any district court of the United States or the United States courts of any Territory or possession, or the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia, within the jurisdiction of which the inquiry is carried on or within the jurisdiction of which said person guilty of contumacy or refusal to obey is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the Board shall have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear before the Board or its hearing examiner, there to produce evidence if so ordered, or there to give testimony touching the matter under review; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by said court as a contempt thereof.
(e) (1) Notices, orders, and other process and papers of the Board, or any hearing examiner thereof, shall be served upon the detainee personally and upon his attorney or designated representative. Such process and papers may be served upon the Attorney General or such other officers as may be designated by him for such purpose, and upon any other interested persons either personally or by registered mail or by telegraph or by leaving a copy thereof at the principal office or place of business of the person required to be served. The verified return by the individual so serving the same setting forth the manner of such service shall be proof of the same, and the return post-office receipt or telegraph receipt therefor when registered and mailed or telegraphed as aforesaid shall be proof of service of the same. Witnesses summoned before the Board, or any hearing examiner thereof, shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States, and witnesses whose depositions are taken and the persons taking the same shall severally be entitled to the same fees as are paid for like services in the courts of the United States.
(2) All process of any court to which application may be made under this title may be served in the judicial district wherein the person required to be served resides or may be found.
(3) The several departments and agencies of the Government, when directed by the President, shall furnish the Board, upon its request, all records, papers, and information in their possession relating to any matter before the Board.
(f) Every detainee shall be afforded full opportunity to be represented by counsel at the preliminary hearing prescribed by this title and in all stages of the detention review proceedings, including the hearing before the Board and any judicial review, and he shall have the right at hearings of the Board to testify, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to cross-examine adverse witnesses.
(g) In any proceeding before the Board under this title the Board and its hearing examiners are authorized to consider under regulations designed to protect the national security any evidence of Government agencies and officers the full text or content of which cannot be publicly revealed for reasons of national security, but which the Attorney General in his discretion offers to present. The testimony taken before the Board or its hearing examiners shall be reduced to writing and filed with the Board. Thereafter, in its discretion, the Board upon notice may take further testimony or hear argument.
(h) In deciding the question of the existence of reasonable ground to believe a person probably will engage in or conspire with others to engage in espionage or sabotage, the Attorney General, any preliminary hearing officer, and the Board of Detention Review are authorized to consider evidence of the following:
(1) Whether such person has knowledge of or has received or given instruction or assignment in the espionage, counterespionage, or sabotage service or procedures of a government or political party of a foreign country, or in the espionage, counterespionage, or sabotage service or procedures of the Communist Party of the United States or of any other organization or political party which seeks to overthrow or destroy by force and violence the Government of the United States or of any of its subdivisions and to substitute therefor a totalitarian dictatorship controlled by a foreign government, and whether such knowledge, instruction, or assignment has been acquired or given by reason of civilian, military, or police service with the United States Government, the governments of the several States, their political subdivisions, the District of Columbia, the Territories, the Canal Zone, or the insular possessions, or whether such knowledge has been acquired solely by reason of academic or personal interest not under the supervision of or in preparation for service with the government of a foreign country or a foreign political party, or whether, by reason of employment at any time by the Department of Justice or the Central Intelligence Agency, such person has made full written disclosure of such knowledge or instruction to officials within those agencies and such disclosure has been made a matter of record in the files of the agency concerned;
(2) Any past act or acts of espionage or sabotage committed by such person, or any past participation by such person in any attempt or conspiracy to commit any act of espionage or sabotage, against the United States, any agency or instrumentality thereof, or any public or private national defense facility within the United States;
(3) Activity in the espionage or sabotage operations of, or the holding at any time after January 1, 1949, of membership in, the Communist Party of the United States or any other organization or political party which seeks to overthrow or destroy by force and violence the Government of the United States or of any of its political subdivisions and the substitution therefor of a totalitarian dictatorship controlled by a foreign government.
(i) The authorization of the Attorney General and the Board of Detention Review to consider the evidence set forth in the previous subsection shall not be construed as a direction to detain any person as to whom such evidence exists, but in each case the Attorney General or the Board of Detention Review shall decide whether, on all the evidence, there is reasonable ground to believe the detainee or possible detainee probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in, espionage or sabotage.
(j) In any proceeding involving a claim for the payment of any indemnity pursuant to the provisions of this title, the Board and its hearing examiners may receive evidence having probative value concerning the nature and extent of the income lost by the claimant as a result of his detention.
Orders of the Board
Sec. 110. (a) If upon all the testimony taken in any proceeding for the review of any order of detention issued pursuant to section 104 (d) of this title, the Board shall determine that there is not reasonable ground to believe that the detainee in question probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in, espionage or sabotage, the Board shall state its findings of fact and shall issue and serve upon the Attorney General or order revoking the order for detention of the detainee concerned and requiring the Attorney General, and any officer designated by him for the supervision or control of the detention of such person, to release such detainee from custody; and shall forthwith serve a copy of such order upon the detainee.
(b) If upon all the testimony taken in any proceeding for the review of any such order for detention involving a claim for indemnity pursuant to this title, or in any other proceeding brought before the Board for the assertion of a claim to such indemnity, the Board shall determine that the claimant is entitled to receive such indemnity, the Board shall state its findings of fact and shall issue and serve upon the Attorney General an order requiring him to pay to such claimant the amount of such indemnity; and shall forthwith serve a copy of such order upon such claimant. If upon all the testimony taken in any proceeding involving a claim for indemnity or for the ascertainment of any such claim, the Board shall determine that the claimant is not entitled to receive such indemnity, the Board shall state its finding of fact in sufficient detail to apprise the claimant of the grounds for its decision and shall issue and serve upon the claimant an order denying such claim and dismissing his petition so far as it pertains to such claim.
(c) If upon all the testimony taken in any proceeding for the review of any such order for detention, the Board shall determine that there is reasonable ground to believe that the detainee probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in, espionage or sabotage, the Board shall state its findings of fact in sufficient detail to apprise the detainee of the grounds for its decision and shall issue and serve upon the detainee an order dismissing the petition and confirming the order of detention.
(d) In case the evidence is presented before a hearing examiner such examiner shall issue and cause to be served on the parties to the proceeding a proposed report, together with a recommended order, which shall be filed with the Board, and if no exceptions are filed within twenty days after service thereof upon such parties, or within such further period as the Board may authorize, such recommended order shall become the order of the Board and become effective as therein prescribed.
(e) Until a transcript of the record in a case shall have been filed in a court, as hereinafter provided, the Board may at any time, upon reasonable notice and in such manner as it shall deem proper, modify or set aside, in whole or in part, any finding or order made or issued by it.
Judicial Review
Sec. 111. (a) Any petitioner aggrieved by an order of the Board denying in whole or in part the relief sought by him, or by the failure or refusal of the Attorney General to obey such order, shall be entitled to the judicial review or judicial enforcement, provided hereinafter in this section.
(b) In the case of any order of the Board granting any indemnity to any petitioner, the Attorney General shall be entitled to the judicial review of such order provided hereinafter in this section.
(c) Any party entitled to judicial review or enforcement under subsection (a) or (b) of this section shall be entitled to receive such review or enforcement in any United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein the petitioner is detained or resides by filing in such court within sixty days from the date of service upon the aggrieved party of such order of the Board a written petition praying that such order be modified or set aside or enforced, except that in the case of a petition for the enforcement of a Board order, the petitioner shall have a further period of sixty days after the Board order has become final within which to file the petition herein required. A copy of such petition by any petitioner other than the Attorney General shall be forthwith served upon the Attorney General and upon the Board, and a copy of any such petition filed by the Attorney General shall be forthwith served upon the person with respect to whom relief is sought and upon the Board. The Board shall thereupon file in the court a duly certified transcript of the entire record of the proceedings before the Board with respect to the matter concerning which judicial review is sought, including all evidence upon which the order complained of was entered, the findings and order of the Board. In the case of a petition for enforcement, under subsection (a) of this section, the petitioner shall file with his petition a statement under oath setting forth in full the facts and circumstances upon which he relies to show the failure or refusal of the Attorney General to obey the order of the Board. Thereupon the court shall have jurisdiction of the proceeding and shall have power to affirm, modify, or set aside, or to enforce or enforce as modified the order of the Board. The findings of the Board as to the facts, if supported by reliable, substantial, and probative evidence, shall be conclusive.
(d) If either party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before the Board or its hearing examiner the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Board or its hearing examiner and to be made a part of the transcript. The Board may modify its findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of additional evidence so taken and filed, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which findings with respect to questions of fact if supported by reliable, substantial, and probative evidence on the record considered as a whole shall be conclusive, and shall file its recommendations, if any, for the modification or setting aside of its original order. The jurisdiction of the court shall be exclusive and its judgment and decree shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon writ of certiorari or certification as provided in title 28, United States Code, section 1254.
(e) The commencement of proceedings by the Attorney General for judicial review under subsection (b) of this section shall, if he so requests, operate as a stay of the Board's order.
(f) Any order of the Board shall become final-
(1) upon the date of entry thereof by the Board, if such order is not subject to judicial review; or
(2) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for review or enforcement, if such order is subject to judicial review and no such petition has been duly filed within such time; or
(3) upon the expiration of the time allowed for filing a petition for certiorari, if such order is subject to judicial review and the order of the Board has been affirmed or the petition for review or enforcement dismissed by a United States court of appeals, and no petition for certiorari has been duly filed; or
(4) upon the denial of a petition for certiorari, if such order is subject to judicial review and the order of the Board has been affirmed or the petition for review or enforcement dismissed by a United States court of appeals; or
(5) upon the expiration of ten days from the date of issuance of the mandate of the Supreme Court, if such order is subject to judicial review and such Court directs that the order of the Board be affirmed or that the petition for review or enforcement be dismissed.
(g) Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to deprive any person of any relief to which he may be entitled under the Administrative Procedure Act.
Criminal Provisions
Sec. 112. Whoever, being named in a warrant for apprehension or order of detention as one as to whom there is reasonable ground to believe that he probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in, espionage or sabotage, or being under confinement or detention pursuant to this title, shall resist or knowingly disregard or evade apprehension pursuant to this title or shall escape, attempt to escape or conspire with others to escape from confinement or detention ordered and instituted pursuant to this title, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than ten years, or both.
Sec. 113. Whoever knowingly-
(a) advises, aids, assists, or procures the resistance, disregard, or evasion of apprehension pursuant to this title by any person named in a warrant or order of detention as one as to whom there is reasonable ground to believe that such person probably will engage in, or conspire with others to engage in espionage or sabotage; or
(b) advises, aids, assists, or procures the escape from confinement or detention pursuant to this title of any person so named; or
(c) aids, relieves, transports, harbors, conceals, shelters, protects, or otherwise assists any person so named for the purpose of the evasion of such apprehension by such person or the escape of such person from such confinement or detention; or
(d) attempts to commit or conspires with any other person to commit any act punishable under subsections (a), (b), or (c) of this section, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned nor more than ten years, or both.
Sec. 114. Any person who shall willfully resist, prevent, impede, or interfere with any member of the Board or any of its agents or agencies in the performance of duties pursuant to this Act shall be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.
Definition
Sec. 115. For the purposes of this title, the term ''espionage'' means any violation of sections 791 through 797 of title 18 of the United States Code, as amended by this Act, and the term ''sabotage'' means any violation of sections 2151 through 2156 of title 18 of the United States Code, as amended by this Act.
Separability of Provisions
Sec. 116. If any provision of this title, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remaining provisions of this title, or the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby. Nothing contained in this title shall be construed to suspend or to authorize the suspension of the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus.
Sam Rayburn Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Alben W. Barkley Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate.