The Greeks emerged from the Dark Ages into what became known as the Lyric Age. It was the time in which the Greek city-states became the dominant political construct of Greece. The major city-states were Sparta -- which dominated Laconia and Messina--, Athens -- which dominated Attica -- and, during some periods, Thebes -- which controlled Boeotia. The period was marked by Greek expansion throughout the Mediterranean.
The Lyric age was the period of epic poetry as well as science and philosophy.