The Babylonian Empire
The Amorites invaded Mesopotamia and organized the city states of Sumer and Akkad into an empire centered in Babylon. It lasted for four centuries. One of the greatest accomplishments of the Empire was the promulgation of the Code of Hammurabi, issued by King Hammurabi. The Code dealt with everything from business relationships to divorce. The Code is considered a major landmark in the history of law. The Babylonians also expanded the Sumerian store of science knowledge.
The Babylonian civilization was ultimately absorbed by the Kassites. The Kassites dominated Babylonia for four hundred years, until the Assyrian conquest. Once the Assyrians were overthrown, the Neo-Babylonian or Chaldean Era began. The most famous king of the period was Nebuchadnezzar, known for the creation of the celebrated Hanging Gardens of Babylon, but also for his conquest of Jerusalem. Babylonia fell in 539 B. C. to the Persian ruler, Cyrus.