World History 1963ΦΈ

1963 French veto Britain's Joining Common Maket The French vetoed the British bid to join the Common Market. The reason given by French President DeGaulle was Britain's lower food prices and cash subsidies to farmers.
1963 Diem Government overthrown in Vietnam The Vietnamese military, with the backing of the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), overthrew the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem. The US backed the action, since the Administration felt Diem was both corrupt and not pursuing the war against the Communists with enough vigor. US support for the action effectively deepened the US commitment to South Vietnam.
1963 Kenya Declares Independence On December 12, Great Britain granted Kenya independence within the British Commonwealth. Its first leader was Jomo Kenyatta.
1963 OAU Founded Representatives of 30 of the 32 independent nations of Africa met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to form the Organization of African Unity (OAU). An outgrowth of the Pan-Africanist movement begun by W. E. B. Du Bois and other African-American intellectuals, the OAU was intended to foster unity among African nations. Headquarters were established in Addis Ababa. The organization stood for the eradication of colonialism, mutual defense and the promotion of the economic and social welfare of member states. The OAU was successful in mediating conflicts between Algeria and Morocco (1965), Somalia and Ethiopia and Somalia and Kenya (1965-67), but fared poorly in its dealings with the Nigerian-Biafra Civil War (1968-70). Repeated attempts in the 1970's and 1980's to move the continent toward greater economic integration also failed and, by the 1990's, the OAU spoke with a voice that rang with little authority.
1963 Nuclear Test Ban Planned The first test ban agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union was ratified by the Senate on October 10. The agreement banned the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons.
1963 Feminine Mystique Published Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique in 1963. The book issued a call to modern women to throw off their traditional roles, which were dependent on men, and establish independent identities.
1963 Universtiy of Alabama Integrated On June 11, 1963, two black students were admitted to the University of Alabama. This occured after an unsuccessful attempt by Governor George Wallace to block their admission. President Kennedy ordered the national guard federalized to insure their admittance, and gave an impassioned speech to the nation on the subject.
1963 Medgar Evers Slain On June 12, Medgar Evers, the NAACP field secretary for Mississippi, was assassinated by Byron De La Beckwith. It took almost 33 years to bring the assassin to justice.
1963 March on Washington Two hundred thousand people participated in the largest non-violent demonstration ever held to support the passage of civil rights legislation. At the rally, Dr. Martin Luther King stated: "I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self evident; that all men are created equal."
1963 Kennedy visits Berlin President Kennedy made a truimphant visit to Europe. He visited West Germany and West Berlin, where he was met by a degree of enthusiasm usually reserved for a movie star. He also visited his ancestral home, Ireland. While in Rome, John F. Kennedy, a Roman Catholic, was greeted by the Pope as President Kennedy, Head of State.
1963 President Kennedy Assassinated On November 22, while visiting Dallas, Texas, President Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. The assassination shocked the world and marked the end of an era in American history.
1963 Vaccine Against Measles Approval was given for a vaccine against measles. John Enders developed the vaccine in 1963.
1963 USS Thresher Sinks In the worst post-war US submarine disaster, the USS Tresher sunk in the Altantic with all men aboard. None of the men were recovered.