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1400 - 1450 AD

Kingdom of Maracca, Mongols Invade Syria, Mongol Empire Divided, Battle of Tannenberg, Battle of Agincourt, Henry the Navigator, Chinese Capital- Peking, Treaty of Troyes, Battle of Cravant, France Invades Italy, James I Freed, Joan of Arc Frees Orleans, Joan of Arc- Burned Alive, Angkor Sacked, Peace Treaty of Arras, Inca Dynasty, Battle of Varna, Printing Press

 

1400 AD Kingdom of Maracca was Founded-The Kingdom of Malacca was founded on the Malay peninsular in the current day Indonesia. Malacca, which was founded by Paramesvara, soon became the leading maritime power in South East Asia.
1400 AD Mongols Invade Syria- In 1400 the Mongol conqueror Tameralne invaded Syria after devastating Georgia and Russia. The next year he laid waste to Aleppo Damascus and Baghdad. In 1402 Tamerlane then went on to defeat the Ottoman sultan at the battle of Angora.
1405 AD Mongol Empire Divided- Tamerlane, the leader of the Mongols, died suddenly while preparing to attack Ming China. With his death the Mongol Empire rapidly fell apart.
1410 AD Battle of Tannenberg - The Poles and the Lithuanians defeated German Knights at the Battle of Tannenberg on July 15th 1410. Despite the victory, at the Peace of Thorn signed in 1411, the Poles failed to gain access to the sea.
1415 AD English forces destroy French at Battle of Agincourt The British decisively defeated the French at the battle of Agincourt on October 25th. The British archers, under the command of Henry V, were the key to the British victory over the French . Five French counts, 90 barons and over 5,000 French knights were killed in the battle and 1,000 were taken prisoner. As a result of the English victory the French nobility was shattered and the feudal system was destroyed. Normandy lay open to English reconquering.
1415 AD Henry the Navigator- Takes Ceuta - The Portuguese explorer and prince, Henry the Navigator captured Ceuta, in today's Morocco from the Marind dynasty. This begins Portuguese conquest of parts of Africa.
1420 AD Chinese Capital- Peking- The Second Ming Emperor moved the capital of China from Nanking to Peking.
1420 AD Treaty of Troyes- The French under Philippe and England under Henry V signed the Treaty of Troyes. Under the terms of the treaty Henry became the the king of both France and England. Henry was allowed to occupy all the land to the Loire.
1423 AD Battle of Cravant - In 1422 England resumed its war with France. In August 1423 French and Scottish forces were decisively defeated by the forces of England under the command of John Plantagent who was acting as regent for the infant Henry VI.
1424 AD France Invades Italy- Charles VIII King of France began the Italian Wars by invading Italy in September 1494. In February 1495 Naples surrendered to Charles. He temporarily became the King of Naples. Alexander VI organizes the Holy League which included Spain to repel the French from Italy. In July 1495 the French lost the Battle of Fornovo and Charles was forced to flee Italy.
1424 AD James I Freed- King of Scotland After being held in English captivity from the age of 11, Scotland's James I was freed at the age of 29. The earl of Somerset remited 10,000 marks to ransom James as a dowry for his daughter Jane. Jane and James were married in February 1424. In May James was crowned King of Scotland.
1429 AD Joan of Arc Frees Orleans - War between France and England continued on and off, despite various agreements to cease. In 1428 the English began to beseige the Orleans. Joan of Arc a young girl from Lorrain began to have visions and claim to hear voices. She convinced the French dauphin to provide her with a small army and went on to liberate Orleans. This changed the very nature of the conflict giving the French a new sense of confidence in their conflict with England and reinvigorating the French monarchy. Joan convinced the people that the dauphin was the legitimate son of Charles VI and he was crowned King at Reims on July 17, 1429.
1431 AD Joan of Arc- Burned Alive- Joan of Arc entered Comiegne outside Paris and was taken prisoner. The British held Joan in prison in a tower in Rouen.Charles VII made no effort to assist her. The English in 1431 turn Joan over to the former bishop of the of Beauvais Pierre Cauchon on the assurance she would be convicted of treason against God. She was convicted and burned to death at the stake on May 30, 1431.
1431 AD Angkor Sacked - Angkor, the capital of the Khmer, was captured and sacked by the Thais. The Khmer Empire was forced to move its capital to the present site of the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh.
1435 AD Peace Treaty of Arras -In 1435, Duke Philip of Burgundy became weary of his alliance with the English. He signed a peace treaty with Charles VI which recognized Charles as the one king of France. Charles promised in return to punish the murders of Philip's father. The English did not accept the peace treaty and warfare continued. Charles and Philip fought together and liberated Paris from the English. A truce then ensued between Britain and France that lasted 13 years.
1438 AD Inca Dynasty Founded- The Inca Dynasty that ruled Peru until 1553 was founded in 1438. Its founder is said to have been Pachacutec. He rapidly expanded the empire.
1444 AD Battle of Varna- The Ottoman forces fought a constant series of battles along its Hungarian border. Murad the Ottoman sultan decided to end the strife once and for all. He attacked Belgrade, the chief fortress on the Hungarian border. He was repulsed from Belgrade. Encouraged by their victories the Christians declared a new Crusade against the Ottomans, whose goal was to drive them from Europe. The Christian armies were led by Hunyadi who acheived two important victories, the first at the battle of Hermanstadt, and then at the battle of Nissa in which the Ottomans are driven from Bulgaria.
1450 AD Printing Press Invented- In 1450, Johannes Guttenberg invented the printing press. The invention of the press revolutionized communication and education, allowing the development of newspapers, as well as reasonably priced books. The first product of the press was the Guttenberg Bible.