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1300 - 1400 AD

Philip IV, Avignonese Papacy, Battle Bannockburn, Great European Famine, Swiss Victory, Isabelle Desposes Husband, Ottoman Empire, Hundred Year War, French Fleet Annihilated, Battle Of Crecy, Black Death, University Of Kracow, Battle In Poitiers, Treaty of Calias, Chu Yuan-Chang, Ming Dynasty, Hundred Year War, War of Chioggia, Peasants Revolt, Portugal Independent, Union of Kalamar

 

1302 AD Philip IV Calls Meeting Of The Estates General- Philip IV of France called together representatives of the nobility, townspeople and clergy for the first time. The gathering became known as the Estates-General. Philip's main purpose in convening this group was to garner support against Pope Boniface, whose bull 'Unam Sanctum' proclaimed Papal supremacy over national leaders.
1309 AD Avignonese Papacy- Pope Clement V, who was heavily influenced by Philip IV of France, took up residency in Avignon, France. Clement rescinded Boniface's pronouncements against Philip. Until 1378, Popes continued to reside in Avignon.
1314 AD Battle Bannockburn- Scotland- The Scots, led by Robert the Bruce, routed a larger force led by Edward II, King of England. The two armies met at the Battle of Bannockburn, which took place in central Scotland. The Scottish victory insured Scotland's independence for the next three centuries.
1314 - 1317 AD Great European Famine - The worst famine to strike Europe occurred between 1314-1317. It was widespread, affecting all of Northern Europe. Eyewitness accounts tell of the poor and hungry resorting to eating cats and dogs.
1315 AD Swiss Victory - Swiss forces, led by the canton of Schwyz, gained a victory over Leopold I (Hapsburg) Duke of Austria at the Battle of Morgarten. The victory led to an expanded Swiss alliance. By 1353 Switzerland was established.
1326 AD Isabelle Desposes Husband England was invaded by the French wife of King Edward II - Isabelle. She was supported by French troops and gained control of England as Edward II was forced to flee London. Isabelle arranged for her son Edward III to be crowned King.
1326 AD The Ottoman Empire Founded- The Ottoman Empire was established when the Byzantine fortress of Bursa falls after a nine-year siege to the forces of the Osmali Turks, under Osman. The same year, Osman died and was succeeded by his son Orkhan who ruled until 1360. Under Orkahn, the Empire expanded to include central Anatolia and Thrace.
1337 AD Hundred Year War- The Hundred Years War began when Philip VI contested the English claim to Normandy and other northern provinces. At the same time, Edward III contested Philip's legitimacy based on the fact that his mother was the daughter of Philip IV. He demanded the crown of France. Edward won the support of many Flemish towns. He ravaged the French countryside, but at first fought no decisive battles.
1340 AD French Fleet Annihilated- The French navy was destroyed at the Battle of Sluis which took place off the coast of Flanders. The victory gave England naval supremacy in the English Channel.
1340 AD Battle Of Crecy - A smaller British force under the command of Edward III defeated a French army under the command of Philip VI. This marked the first use of cannon and small arms in battle in Europe.
1347 - 1353 AD The Black Death- The Black Death (bubonic plague) that spread throughout Europe between 1347 and 1353 was the worse natural disaster in European history. It is estimated that of a population of 75 million people, between 19 to 35 million died. The plague was spread by rats infested by infected fleas. The plague originated in the East. Ships carrying infected vermin came to the island of Sicily. The disease spread northward throughout Europe. It took two hundred years for Europe's population to recover. One of the most bizarre results of the plague was the large-scale outbreak of anti-semitism. Jews were accused of causing the plague. Over 60 Jewish communities were entirely wiped out in Germany alone.
1348 AD University Of Kracow Founded The University of Kracow was founded in Poland. Its sponsor was Casimir III the King of Poland.
1356 AD Battle In Poitiers- At the Battle of Poiters, the Black Prince of Wales Edward defeated the French. In the course of the battle, the French king, John II, was taken prisoner and brought to England. This resulted in civil chaos in France.
1360 AD Treaty of Calias- With both England and France exhausted by the war, they signed the Treaty of Calias on October 24th 1360. Under its terms, John II of France was ransomed and Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
1368 AD Chu Yuan-Chang, A Chinese Buddhist Monk Founds Ming Dynasty- A large Mongolian armada that may have numbered 145,000 men, landed at Hakozaki Bay. The Japanese were waiting for them and repulsed the attack. A typhoon then destroyed the Mongol fleet, leaving the army to be killed or enslaved.
1372 AD Revival Of Hundred Year War off La Rochelle- The Hundred Years War resumed when the French fleet defeated the British fleet off La Rochelle y France. The French were helped by a powerful fleet from Castile. On June 27, 1375 the French and English signed the Truce of Bruges. Under its terms, the British presence in France was limited to Calia, Brest, Bordeaux and Bayonne.
1381 AD War of Chioggia- The Venetians and the Genoans fought in the War of Chioggia. The Genoans blockaded the Venetians after seizing Chioggia. The Venetian fleet under Vittoria Pisano defeated the Genoans. This began the golden age of Venice.
1381 AD The Peasants Revolt- A rebellion led by Wat Tyler created anarchy throughout England. 30,000 rioters converged on London. Once there, they burned a number of public buildings and beheaded the archbishop of Canterbury. King Richard made promises to meet the rioters demands, however the next day Tyler was killed and the revolt was put down.
1385 AD Portugal Free from Spain- The Portugese fought Castile at the Battle of Ajubarrota. The Portugese were led by John the Great. His victory insured the independence of Portugal.
1397 AD Union of Kalamar- Magaret Queen of Sweden completed the conquest of Denmark and Norway. She then went on to form the Kalamar League, which became a Union of all three countries.