|Adolf Eichmann was in charge of the Jewish Department of the Nazi SS (Gestapo). As such, he was directly responsible for carrying out the Nazi's "final solution" - the extermination of European Jewry.
After World War II, Eichmann fled to South America. In May 1960, Eichmann was captured by Israel's Intelligence Agency (the Mossad), smuggled out of Argentina and brought to Israel to stand trial.
Eichmann's trial began on April 11, 1961 at Binyanei HaUma, in Jerusalem. A special bullet-proof cage was built for Eichmann's protection. After a 14-week trial, Eichmann was convicted, and sentenced to die for crimes against humanity.
After his appeal was denied, Eichmann was executed on May 31, 1962, making him the only person ever officially executed by the State of Israel.