|Maxmilien Robespierre the leader of the Jacobins, the most radical faction of the National Convention began the Reign of Terror. The war was initially going badly for France, so the National Assembly authorized the creation of the Committee for Public Safety. That committee declared on August 23, 1793 for the universal mobilization of all men. The result was that France was able to field an army of 1,169,000 men, the largest in European history. The large French army was able to stem the tied of French defeats and take the offensive.
The Committee of Public Safety also turned its attention to domestic opponents of republic. It established revolutionary courts that were empowered to quickly try the opponents of the regime. It is estimated that 30,000 people, included Marie Antionnette the queen, were beheaded during the reign of terror. The Reign of Terror effectively ended when the National Assembly, whose members began to fear for their own lives, condemned its leader Maxmillien Robespiere. On July 28th he was guillotined.