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English Civil War
Charles I continued his disagreements with Parliament. In addition he attempted to increase the amount of ritual in the Church of England; something opposed by many Protestants who felt that it was a return to the more ritualistic Catholic practices. In 1642 the disputes led to civil war between Parliament and the King. Parliament won the battle with Oliver Cromwell leading the Roundheads against the Royalist. Cromwell, whose force was also known as the New Model Army, had the best trained army and that, combined with the religious fervor of it soldiers, led to their victory. Once Cromwell was victorious he ousted all those in the Parliament who did not support him, creating what became known as the rump Parliament. It approved the beheading of Charles I which took place in January 1869. Cromwell declared England a republic, but when Parliament failed to go along with all Cromwell wanted he disbanded the Parliament and ruled until his death as dictator.