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The North Atlantic Treaty

Washington, DC- April 4, 1949

The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes
and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their
desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments.

They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and
civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of
democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law.

They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlantic area.

They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security.

They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty:

The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United
Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may
be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international
peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain
in their international relations from the threat or use of force
in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United


The Parties will contribute toward the further development of
peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening
their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding
of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and
by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will
seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic
policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any
or all of them.


In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this
Treaty, theParties, separately and jointly, by means of
continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain
and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist
armed attack.


The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any
of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or
security of any of the Parties is threatened.


The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of
them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack
against them all, and consequently they agree that, if such an
armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of
individual or collective selfdefence recognised by Article 51 of
the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or
Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually, and in
concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems
necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and
maintain the security of the North Atlantic area.

Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof
shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such
measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken
the measures necessary to restore and maintain international
peace and security.


For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of
the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack:

- on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North
America, on the Algerian Departments of France(2), on the
territory of Turkey or on the islands under the jurisdiction of
any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic
of Cancer;

- on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties,
when in or over these territories or any area in Europe in which
occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the
date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea
or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer.


The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as
affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the
Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations,
or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the
maintenance of international peace and security.

1 As amended by Article 2 of the Protocol to the North Atlantic
Treaty on the accesion of Greece and Turkey.

2 On 16th January 1963 the Council noted that insofar as the
former Algerian Departments of France were concerned the relevant
clauses of this Treaty had become inapplicable as from 3rd July


Each Party declares that none of the international engagements
now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third
State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and
undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in
conflict with this Treaty.


The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them
shall be represented to consider matters concerning the
implementation of this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised
as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council shall set
up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it
shall establish immediately a defence committee which shall
recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5.


The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other
European State in a position to further the principles of this
Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic
area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited may become
a party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession
with the Government of the United States of America. The
Government of the United States of America will inform each of
the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession.


This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by
the Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional
processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as
soon as possible with the Government of the United States of
America, which will notify all the other signatories of each
deposit. The Treaty shall enter into force between the States
which have ratified it as soon as the ratification of the
majority of the signatories, including the ratifications of
Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United
Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall come
into effect with respect to other States on the date of the
deposit of their ratifications.3


After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time
3 The Treaty came into force on 24 August 1949, after the
deposition of the ratifications of all signatory states.

thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests,
consult together for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having
regard for the factors then affecting peace and security in the
North Atlantic area including the development of universal as
well as regional arrangements under the Charter of the United
Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security.


After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party
may cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation
has been given to the Government of the United States of America,
which will inform the Governments of the other Parties of the
deposit of each notice of denunciation.


This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally
authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government
of the United States of America. Duly certified copies will be
transmitted by that government to the governments of the other