World History 1922-1923 AD

1922 Irish Free State Established-After Sinn Fein's victory in the parliamentary elections of Southern Ireland, negotiations began with the British on Irish independence. An agreement was reached that provided for an independent Ireland, having the status of Dominion within the British Empire. The radicals disapproved, and mounted an insurrection against the provisional government. In subsequent elections, the government won an overwhelming victory. The new constitution of Ireland was ratified and the Irish Free State came into being.
1922 Mussolini Seizes Power in Italy -(10/31/22) In October, tens of thousands of Fascist supporters of Mussolini marched on Rome, demanding power. The government of Premier Facta requested the implementation of martial law, but King Emmanuel refused to sign the decree, leading to Facta's resignation. Emmanuel appointed Mussolini Prime Minister, and gave him dictatorial powers in an effort to restore order.
1922 Second Treaty Rapallo -(4/16/22) Germany recognized the USSR under the terms of the second Treaty of Rapallo. Germany and the USSR canceled their debts to one another, and Germany was absolved from paying reparations to the USSR.
1922 British Give Egypt Limited Independence -(2/28/22) The British government unilaterally terminated its protectorate of Egypt. Egypt was declared independent, but defense considerations were left to the British.
1922 Fordney-McCumber Tariff-This tariff was passed in 1922. It raised duties to an average of 38 percent. It particularly provided protection to the chemical and drug industries that developed during World War I.
1922 World War Foreign Debt Commission Established -The US Congress established the World War Foreign Debt Commission to negotiate with European nations debts owed from World War I. The total amount owed the United States was $22 billion, which was to be paid back over 62 years at 2% interest.
1922 1st US Aircraft Carriers Launched -(3/20/22) On March 20th, at Norfolk, Virginia, the USS Langely was commissioned as the first Naval Aircraft Carrier. The carrier was a converted coaler.
1922 Doolittle Flies Coast-to-Coast In Under a Day-Jimmy Doolittle made a coast-to-coast trip in under one day. He started out in Pueblo Beach, Florida, and ended his flight 21 hours later in San Diego. His only stop was Kelly Field, Texas.
1922 Qantus Introduces Air Service-(11/2/22)On November 2nd, QANTAS began Australia's first schelduled air service. The service began from Charleville and terminated in Cloncurry, 557 miles away. QANTAS was able to institute the service after receiving an air mail contract for northeastern Australia.

1923

1923 France Occupies The Ruhr -(1/11/23)The French announced, on January 9th, that the Germans were in default on their coal deliveries. On January 11th, the French occupied the Ruhr district of Germany in order to forcibly obtain coal. The German people and government pursued a policy of passive resistance.
1923 Munich Beer Putsch- (11/8/23) Adolf Hitler, together with General Erich Ludendorff, attempted to overthrow the German government. The putsch was suppressed by the government.
1923 Treaty of Lausanne - (7/24/23)After an unsuccessful military campaign against the Greeks, Turkey concluded a peace treaty with the Allies. Under the terms of the agreement, Turkey gave up all claim to non-Turkish territories lost in the course of World War I. It recovered however, Eastern Thrace. In the Agean, it received Imbros and Tenedos, but the rest of the islands went to Greece. Turkey paid no reparations. The Dardenelles were demilitarized, and open to all ships in time of peace and all neutral ships in time of war.
1923 Earthquake Hits Tokyo - On September 1, 1923, an earthquake hit Japan. Tokyo and Yokohama were nearly destroyed. Over 200,000 people were said to have been killed. Damage was estimated at $1 billion.
1923 TransJordan Established a Separate Country -Britain separated Transjordan from the mandate of Palestine. Emir Abdullah Ibn Hussein, the son of the Sheriff of Mecca, was made King.
1923 Klu Klux Klan Exposed -A number of exposés were printed on the activities of the Ku Klux Klan against Blacks, Catholics, Jews and other minorities. In the early 1920's, the organization had a membership of 5 million. After receiving extensive publicity, the Grand Dragon was eventually indicted for murder, and membership dropped to 9,000 by 1930.
1923 US Crossed Non-Stop -(5/3/23) US Army Air Lieutenants Oakley Kelly and John MacReady flew non-stop across the United States. The flight was made in a Fokker T–2. It took 26 hours and 50 minutes to make the trip that started on Long Island and ended in San Diego