World History 1918-1919 AD
Treaty of Brest Litovsk, Battle of Marne, Battle Argonne Forest, German Army Mutinies,, Wilson Announces 14 Point Plan, Poland Independent, US Intervenes in Russia, Czechoslavakia Independent, Armistice Signed,Air Mail Service, Versailles Peace Conference, Treaty of Saint-Germain, White Russian Army Defeated, Seaplanes Cross Atlantic, British- Afghan War Erupts, Massacre in Amritsar Erupts, Russo-Polished War, Mohandas Gandhi,
|1918 Treaty of Brest Litovsk -A treaty was signed between the central powers (Germany, Austria, Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) and the Soviet government. Under the terms of the agreement, Russia lost Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, most of Byelorussia and Russian Poland. The treaty was annulled under the terms of the German armistice.|
|1918 Battle of Marne -The battle of Marme was a massive attempt by the Germans to breakthrough on the West before American forces could arrive in large numbers. The Germans captured 1,200 square mile of territory, 90,000 prisoners and vast stores of weapons in the course of the offensive. The German offens eventually became bogged down by early August. By then, tens of thousands of fresh American troops were arriving almost daily to reinforce an exhausted Allied army.|
|1918 Battle Argonne Forest -On September 26th, Allied troops now took the offensive, under the command of General Foch. Thanks to the presence of a million American soldiers in France by this time, the Allies made slow, but steady, progress. The German high command warned that it could no longer ensure victory and, as the German army began mutinying, it sued for peace.|
|1918 German Army Mutinies, Wilhelm II Abdicates, War Ends -On October 28th, the German fleet mutinied in Kiel. Eventually, the mutiny spread throughout the German Armed Forces. Kaiser Wilhelm was told by General Hindenberg that the loyalty of the army could no longer be guaranteed. Wilhelm abdicated and fled to Holland. Phillip Scheidemann, the Socialist leader, declared Germany a Republic. The Allies then imposed a harsh armistice on the vanquished Germans.|
|1918 Wilson Announces 14 Point Plan-(1/8/18) U.S. President Woodrow Wilson put forth fourteen points that he believed could be the basis for a settlement of the Great War.
The Points were:
No secret diplomacy; freedom of the Seas; no international barriers to trade; reduction in armaments; adjustment of colonial disputes; evacuation of Russian territory with self-determination; evacuation and restoration of Belgian sovereignty; restoration of French sovereignty; adjustment of the Italian frontiers; autonomy for the population of Austria- Hungary; evacuation and restoration of the Balkan nations and peoples; the internationalization of the Dardanelles; independence for Poland with guaranteed access to the sea; and creation of a League of Nations.
|1918 Poland Declared Independent-(10/6/18) Poland declared its independence on October 6, 1918. Jozef Pilsudski, who was released from a German prison, was named Poland's leader.|
|1918 US Intervenes in Russia-The United States took a limited role in the international force that intervened in the Russian Civil War. The stated purpose of the intervention was to insure that Russian arms did not fall into German hands, and to provide the means for trapped allied troops to escape.|
|1918 Czechoslavakia Declared Independent - (10/28/18)The Prague National Council declared its independence from Austria-Hungary on October 28, 1918. Czechoslovakia declared its independence as a new nation and was recognized rapidly by France, Great Britain and the United States. Tomas Masaryk was elected the first president of the nation.|
|1918 Armistice Signed In Europe-(11/11/18) On November 11th, an armistice was signed, bringing the war in Europe to a conclusion. Five million allies and 3.4 million members of the central powers were killed in the conflict. Of that total, 50,585 Americans were killed in the war.|
|1918 Air Mail Service Begun-(5/15/118) The US Post Office began the first regularly-scheduled air mail service on May 15th, between New York and Washington. The first flight was made by Lieutenant George Boyle, who started the service inauspiciously by following the wrong tracks -- heading south instead of north to New York.|