World History 1902-1903 AD
Anglo-Japanese Treaty, S, African Peace Agreement, Britain And Germany Threaten Venezuela, Entente Cordiale Established, King and Queen of Serbia Murdered, Kishnev Pogrom, Russian Socialist Party Splits, Turks Massacre Bulgarians, British Conquer N. Nigeria, Panama Canal, Ford's "Model A", Panama Independent, Messages over Pacific Cable, Helium Discovered, "Wright Flyer" Flies
|1903 Entente Cordiale Established-France and Great Britain had been colonial rivals for much of the previous two centuries. Their last great confrontation had been over the control of Fashoda in the upper Nile region. France, however, realized that if it were to withstand German expansionism, it needed Great Britain as an ally. From the turn of the century, it became the quiet French policy to seek reconciliation with Great Britain. The British were initially cautious.
In 1903, when it was clear that no alliance with Germany was possible, King Edward broke the ice by making a state visit to France. After a return visit to Britain by French President Loubet, serious negotiations were instituted. These negotiations took nine months and covered every area of the globe where the French and the British might come into possible conflict.
On April 7th 1904, an Anglo-French agreement was signed that eliminated all points of friction between the two countries. The agreement served as the basis of an Anglo-French alliance.
|1903 King and Queen of Serbia Murdered - (6/11/03) Alexander I Obrenovich and his wife Draga Mashin were assassinated in the Royal Palace in Belgrade by dissident Serbian Army officers.|
|1903 Kishnev Pogrom-(4/16/03)The Russian town of Kishinev was the scene of the worse attack on Jews in the new century. The town was half-Christian and half-Jewish. The immediate cause of the pogrom, which took place on Easter, was the death of a Christian girl on Easter eve. The old canard was again advanced that the Jews had killed the girl to make Passover matzoh (flat bread).
The pogrom, in which dozens were killed and a great deal more were severely wounded, convinced many that the condition of the Jews in Russia was intolerable. The event thereby gave a great boost to Zionism ( the movement to create a Jewish State in Palestine).
|1903 Russian Socialist Party Splits in Two - (8/03) At a meeting in London, the Russian Socialist Democratic Labor Party split into two factions. The first faction, led by Vladimir Lenin, was called the Bolsheviks, and believed that party rule should be restricted. The other group, known as the Menshiviks, believed in a more open party structure.|
|1903 Turks Massacre Bulgarians - Thousand of Bulgarian men, women and children were killed by Turkish troops. The Turks were in the process of suppressing a rebellion in Macedonia. Their tactic was to kill any Macedonian with whom they came into contact.|
|1903 British Conquer Northern Nigeria-(2/3/03) The British captured the mud-walled city of Kano, in Northern Nigeria, on February 3rd. The British subdued Northern Nigeria, after a British resident of Southern Nigeria was murdered and his murderer escaped north. Once Kano fell, the leaders of the various tribes of Northern Nigeria agreed to indirect British control.|
|1903 Panama Canal Constructed - The United States immediately recognized a new regime in Panama. The regime broke away from Columbia after Columbia rejectedthe Hays–Herran Agreement for building a canal. Immediately upon recognition, the United States began negotiating for rights to build a canal across the isthmus. It received those rights, and construction began.|
|1903 Ford's First "Model A" - (6/16/03) Henry Ford began selling the "Model A" auto for $850. His goal was to manufacture reliable cars at a price all could afford. His mass production methods would soon change the automobile industry, and eventually the world.|
|1903 Panama Independent from Colombia - (11/17/03) A revolution led by Philippe Jean Bunau-Varilla, an organizer of the Panama Canal Company, declared Panama independent from Colombia. US Naval forces prevented the Colombians from suppressing the revolt. On November 17th, the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed between Panama and the US, giving Americans exclusive rights over the Canal Zone.|
|1903 First Messages Sent over Pacific Cable - (7/4/03) President Theodore Roosevelt sent the first message across the Pacific Cable. The message connected San Francisco and Manila.|
|1903 Helium Discovered-Helium, which occurs only very rarely in nature, was discovered in Daxter, Kansas.|
|1903 "Wright Flyer" Flies -(12/17/03) On December 17th, man's first flight in a heavier-than-air vehicle occured in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. The inventors were Orville and Wilbur Wright. In the first flight, the plane flew for 12 seconds for 120 feet.|