World History 1600-1625 AD

1600 AD Battle of Nieuwport -On July 2, 1600 the combined forces of the Dutch and English defeated the Spanish Hapsburgs at the battle of Nieuwpoort. The Dutch and English forces were commanded by Maurice of Nassau, and the Hapsburgs by Albert, Archduke of Austria. The Hapsburg defeat secured the independence of the Netherlands.
1600 AD Battle of Sekigahara - Japanese General Ieysasu is victorious in the Battle of Sekigahara against the other regents of the son of late Japanese leader Oyotomi Hideyoshi. The victory took place on September 15, 1600 and solidifies his leadership over Japan. Ieysasu enlisted the help of Will Adams the English navigator to be his advisor. He also moved his capital from Kyoto to Edo, which became Tokyo.
1603 AD Kabuki Theater Begun - The Kabuki form of theater began in Japan when a woman danced a popular drama at a Buddhist temple.
1604 AD Time of Troubles Begin in Russia - The Russian time of troubles began with the appearance of a false Dimitri- a pretender to the Russian thrown. He gained support from the Poles and the Cossacks. For a period of nine years, virtual anarchy reigned in Russia, as the various parties fought over rule. It was a period when roving bands would rape and pillage all that lay before them. For three years, between 1610 and 1602, a Polish garrison occupied Moscow.

It was not until the Poles were thrown out and a new Russian dynasty- the Romanovs- could be established that this period came to an end.
1605 AD Akbar, Ruler of India Dies -Akbar the Mughal ruler of India dies. By the end of his life he had successfully gained control of the complete Indian subcontinents.
1605 AD Gunpowder Plot On November 5, 1605, the gunpowder plot was discovered. The planners of the plot, Guy Fawkes, Thomas Percy and Thomas Winter English were all Catholics and planned to assassinate King James and blow up Parliament. All the conspirators where either killed resisting arrest, or hung after being captured.
1606 AD Dutch Land in Australia - The first European landing in Australia took place when the Dutch ship the Duyfken landed in the present day Queensland.
1607 AD Orfeo Performed Claudio Monteverdis opera, Orfeo, is performed in Mantua, Italy, using the first modern European orchestra, with more than 36 instruments.
1607 AD Jamestown Established - King James I of England granted the London Company a charter to settle the southern part of English North America. 144 men embarked on three ships to settle on the James River. The settlers endured many trials, but became the first permanent English settlement in North America.
1609 AD Kepler Publishes His Laws of Planetary Motion In 1609 Johannes Kepler published his first two laws of planetary motion. His laws explained the movement of planets around the sun.
1610 AD Galileo Proves Copernican System Correct -In 1610 Galileo Galilei published in Sidereus nuncius the results of his telescopic observations. Galileo showed the Copernican system in which the planets circle the sun was correct. In 1632 he published another work that clearly proved that Copernican system was correct. This resulted in Galileo's trial by the Roman Inquisition and his recantation .
1610 AD Sante Fe Founded The Spanish government established Santa Fe as the capial of New Mexico in December 1610. This first capital had been established despite the close presence of hostile Indians.
1611 AD Kalamar War Begins -In 1611 the Danish declared war on Sweden after 40 year of peace. The Danes captured the Swedish frontier fortresses of Kalmar and Alvsborg. The war ended with the Treaty of Knaerod in January 1613.
1613 AD Michael Romanov Founds Russian Romanov Dynasty On March 3, 1613 Michael Romanov, then 17, was elected czar of Russia. Thus began the Romanov dynasty, which lasted until being overthrown by Lenin in 1917. It also ended the Russian Times of Trouble.
1614 AD Christians Ordered Out of Japan -The missionaries in Japan begin to quarrel among themselves. Japanese shogun Ieysasu then orders the immediate expulsion of all Christian missionaries. He begins to persecute all Christians in Japan.
1614 AD El Greco Dies El Greco the Spanish painter died. His paintings included Laocoon and The Resurrection.
1616 AD William Shakespeare Dies -William Shakespeare died at his home at Stratford– upon– Avon in 1616. His plays comprise the single greatest collection of plays in the English language
1617 AD Peace of Stolbova The Peace of Stolbova was reached between Sweden and Russia. Under its terms the Russians ceded Estonia to the Swedes.
1618 AD Thirty Years War Begins -The Thirty Years war began when two Catholic members of the Prague Diet were thrown out of the window by Protestants. The members who were thrown out represented the interest of Mathius, the Holy Roman Emperor. This began a general Protestant uprsing. The next year the the Bohemian League deposed the Catholic King Ferdinand and placed Calvinist Frederick V in his place.
1620 AD Battle of White Mountain Johan Tserciaes, Count of Tilly, led the Catholic League in the Battle of White Mountain. The battle which was fought near Prague resulted in a defeat for the Bohemians. Their new king was forced to flee to the Netherlands.
1620 AD Mayflower Lands at Plymouth -One hundred and two individuals, most of whom were Puritans, received a grant of land on which to set up their own colony. They set sail from England on the Mayflower, arriving in Massachusetts in December. When they landed, the colonists called their home "New Plymouth". The colonists all signed the "Mayflower Covenant" before landing, promising to establish "just and equal laws".
1621 AD Battle of Khotin At the battle of Khotin the Ottoman troops, led by Osman II, were defeated by Polish troops of Sigismund III. The battle took place on the Dneister River which was on the border between Poland and the Ottoman vassal state of Moldovia. Osman II was forced to return to Constantinople, where he was killed the next year.