91 - 88 BCThe Social War- The Social War broke out when Italians who were not citizens of the Roman Empire revolted. While parts of the revolt were settled only on the battlefield, it was not until all Italians were offered citizenship in Rome that the rebellion finally ended.
89 - 84 BC The Mithridatic War - The Mithridatic war broke out between Rome and the Anatolian Kingdom of Pontus. The war was precipitated by the seizure of Roman protectorates by Mithridates IV. The Anatolians gained control of the sea and formed alliances with Athens and other Greek city-states. The Romans appointed Consul Sulla to fight the Anatolians. The Romans retook Athens and then defeated the Mithridates at the Battles of Chaerona and Orchomenus, in central Greece. Finally, the Roman navy defeated the Mithridates' navy.
The war ended with the Treaty of Dardanus in 84 B.C., under whose terms the Mithridates gave up all the captured territories and paid a fine to Rome.
82 BCConsul Sulla Enters Rome- In 82 B.C., Consul Sulla returned to Rome after subduing opponents of Roman rule. Sulla was elected dictator of Rome. He then brutally repressed all opponents to his regime. He restored the power of the aristocracy and destroyed the power of the tribunes.
73 BCThird Servile War -The most famous slave revolt, which became known as the Third Servile War, was led by Spartacus, a gladiator. Spartacus and his men seized Mount Vesuvius, and thousands of slaves flocked to his side. Spartacus defeated a number of Romans armies. He was eventually defeated by a Roman army led by Praetor Crassus and was killed in 71 B.C.
65 BCPompey's Conquest- Roman forces under the command of Pompey defeated Mithridates VI, king of Pontus. Pompey forced Mithridates to flee to the eastern Black Sea regions and then to Armenia. Finally, Mithridates committed suicide thus ending the war and giving Pompey a total victory.
63 BC Pompey Captures Jerusalem -Pompey was invited to settle a dispute between Hyrcanus II and his brother, Aristobulus II, and took this as an opportunity to conquer Judea. After a three-month siege, Pompey captured Jerusalem. Pompey killed 12,000 of Jerusalem's Jews.
60 BCPompey, Crassus & Julius Caesar Form Triumvirate- Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Crassus formed the first triumvirate to rule Rome. Each had successfully commanded Roman armies in the field. They worked together to advance each other's needs. The alliance was cemented when Caesar's daughter Julia married Pompey.
58 BCCaesar Defeats Celtic Hevetii (Switzerland)- In the Battle at Issus, Macedonian forces under Alexander, met a Persian army, numbering nearly 500,000 men, under the command of Darius lll. Alexander attacked the Persian infantry in the center of the lines and achieved an overwhelming victory, decimating the Persian forces.
57 BCCaesar Defeats Celtics Belgae Tribes- Julius Caesar defeated the Celtic Helvetica tribes from what is modern-day Switzerland. The battle took place at Bibracate in the present-day France. The Rhine become the frontier as most of Eastern France was occupied by the Romans.
55 BC Caesar Invades Britain- Caesar led Roman troops across the Straits of Dover for a short reconnaissance mission and then returned to Gaul. He came to England the next year with a larger force, defeated the Catuvellauni and established Roman sovereignty over parts of England.
50 BCKingdoms Of Korea Founded- The Kingdoms of Korea were founded around 50 B.C. There were the Koguryo in the north, Silla in the southeast and Pakche in the southwest.