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EGYPT

Egypt has a strong President. He appoints the Prime Minister. The President is elected every six years but the elections have not been contested. Opposition parties are relatively free to criticize the government.
CURRENT GOVERNMENT

President Mubarak, Mohammed Hosni
Prime Minister Ebeid, Atef Mohamed
Dep. Prime Min. Wally, Youssef Amin
Min. of Agriculture & Land Reclamation Wally, Youssef Amin
Min. of Awqaf (Religious Affairs) Zaqzouq, Mahmoud Hamdy
Min. of Communications & Information Technology Nazif, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohamed
Min. of Construction, Housing, & New Urban Communities Soliman, Mohamed Ibrahim
Min. of Culture Hosni, Farouq
Min. of Defense & Military Production Tantawi, Mohamed Hussein, Fd. Mar.
Min. of Education Baha al-Din, Hussein Kamel
Min. of Electricity & Energy Ahmed Younis, Hassan
Min. of Environment Riyadh Tadros, Mamdouh
Min. of Finance Hassanein, Muhammad Medhat
Min. of Foreign Affairs Maher, Ahmed
Min. of Foreign Trade Boutros-Ghali, Youssef
Min. of Health & Population El Din, Mohammad Awad Tag, Dr.
Min. of Higher Education Shehab, Moufed Mahmoud
Min. of Industry & Technology Development al-Saidi, Ali
Min. of Information Sherif, Mohamed Safwat El-
Min. of Insurance & Social Affairs Guindi, Amina El-
Min. of Interior Adli, Habib El-
Min. of Justice Seif al-Nasr, Farouq
Min. of Manpower & Immigration Amawy, Ahmed El-
Min. of Petroleum Fahmy, Sameh
Min. of Planning Mohammed Othman, Othman
Min. of Public Business Sector Khattab, Mokhtar
Min. of Supply & Internal Trade Khedr, Hassan Ali
Min. of Tourism Beltagui, Mamdouh El-
Min. of Transport Demeri, Ibrahim El-
Min. of Water Resources & Irrigation Abu Zeid, Mahmoud Abd al-Halim
Min. of Youth Dessouki, Ali al-Din Hillal
Min. of State for Administrative Development Abu Amer, Mohamed Zaki
Min. of State for Environment Affairs Ebeid, Nadia Riad Makram
Min. of State for Foreign Affairs Aboul Naga, Fayza
Min. of State for International Co-operation Dersh, Ahmed Mahrus El-
Min. of State for Local Development Abdel Qader, Mustafa
Min. of State for Military Production Mesh'al, Sayrd
Min. of State for People's Assembly & Consultative Council Affairs Shazly, Kamal El-
Min. of State for Scientific Research Shehab, Moufed Mahmoud
Governor, Central Bank Aboul Eyoun, Mahmoud
Ambassador to the US Fahmy, Nabil
Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Aboul Gheit, Ahmed Ali

Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah local short form: Misr former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4 January 1996) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura—which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms) elections: People's Assembly—last held 29 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); Advisory Council—last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA) election results: People's Assembly—percent of vote by party—NDP 72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party—NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1; Advisory Council—percent of vote by party—NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party—NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party or NWP [Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN]; Socialist Labor Party or SLP [Ibrahim SHUKRI]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or NPUG [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; Socialist Liberal Party [Mustafa Kamal MURAD]; Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Umma Party [Ahmad al-SABAHI]; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party) [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; Democratic Peoples' Party [Anwar AFIFI]; The Greens Party [Kamal KIRAH]; Social Justice Party [Muhammad 'ABDAL-'AL[ note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned