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400 - 300 BC

Hsiung Nu-Dominate Mongoliat, Corinthian War, 1st Roman Roads Built, Battle At Leuctra, Philip II Regent Of Macedonia, Peace Of Philocrates, Alexander The Great, Battle Of Granicus, Battle Of Issus, Battle Of Gaugamela, Hindu Mauryan Dynasty, Ptolemy, Battle Of Ipsus, Euclid Publishes Elements

 

399 BC Hsiung Nu-(Huns) Dominate Mongoliat- Starting in 399 B.C., the Hsuing Nu (known as the Huns) began to dominate the other tribes in Mongolia. Over a process that took nearly 200 years, they came to dominate the Northern border of China.
395 - 387 BC Corinthian War - With the help of the Persians, Athens and other Greek city-states organized to challenge Sparta once again. In the course of the war, both sides won victories, but Sparta finally negotiated a peace with the Persians which was known as the 'King's Peace' which ended the war.
370 BC 1st Roman Roads Built- The Romans built their first road. The road ran from Rome to the Alban Hills, and was used primarily to carry military traffic.
371 BC Battle At Leuctra -Sparta was defeated at the Battle of Leuctra by Epaeminondas of Thebes. This defeat shattered the myth of Spartan invincibility and ended Sparta's hegemony over Greece.
359 BC Philip II Regent Of Macedonia- Philip II became Regent of Macedonia in 359 B.C. He reorganized the army and made it one of the strongest in Greece. He was soon drawn into the quarrels between the various Greek city-states.
346 BC Peace Of Philocrates -Philip forced Athens to accept a peace treaty with Macedonia, one which was very favorable to Macedonia. This marked the beginning of the end of Greek independence.
334 BC Alexander The Great- Battle Of Granicus- Alexander the Great led a Greek army of 35,000 soldiers into battle against the Persian army led by Darius III at Granicus. The Persian army of 40,000 waited across the river of Granicus for the Macedonians who streamed across. The battle was hard-fought but Alexander's troops gained the upper hand, and killed or captured half of the Persian army which was forced to retreat.
334 BC Battle Of Issus- In the Battle at Issus, Macedonian forces under Alexander, met a Persian army, numbering nearly 500,000 men, under the command of Darius lll. Alexander attacked the Persian infantry in the center of the lines and achieved an overwhelming victory, decimating the Persian forces.
334 BC Battle Of Gaugamela- Darius III and the Persian Empire made a final stand in October 331 B.C. at Gaugamela near Arbela in the heart of Assyria. Nearly 1 million men faced an army of 50,000 Macedonians under Alexander. Alexander obtained excellent intelligence on the disposition of Persian forces and was able to attack the Persians, disrupting their lines which resulted in a general Persian retreat.
Darius fled the battlefield, was pursued and was eventually assassinated in Bactaria. The Persian empire came to an end.
321 BC Hindu Mauryan Dynasty- In 321 B.C., the Maurya Dynasty was founded in India. The Maurya overthrew Nanda, ruler of the Maganedha Kingdom of the Ganges River Valley.
321 BC Ptolemy- Ptolemy, ruler of Egypt, defeated Antigonus at the battle of Gaza. Ptolemy was supported by Seleucus, who went on to reconquer Babylonia.
301 BC Battle Of Ipsus- Antigonus attempted to reunite Alexander's empire under his control. He invaded Egypt, but his forces and those of his son Demetrius were defeated.
300 BC Euclid Publishes Elements-The Greek mathmatician Euclid living in Alexandria, published a 13 volume work called Elements. It laid out for the first time the principals of geometry.