World History 1914 -1915

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History Central > Timeline > 1914 - 1915

Archduke Francis Ferdinand Assassinated, Austria Declares War on Serbia, Germany Declares War, Germany Invades Belgium, Japan Declares War On Germany, US Intervenes In Mexico, Panama Canal, Clayton Anti-Trust Act, Germany Invades Luxemboug, Russians Invade Prussia, Battle of Mons, Battle of Tannenberg, First Battle Marne, First Battle of Ypres, Germans Capture Lodz, Zeppelin Bombing of England, Gallipoli Campaign, Second Battle of Ypres, Lusitania Sunk, Vilnius Falls To Germans, Third Battle of Artois, Transcontinental Telephone Conversation,

 

1914
1914 Archduke Francis Ferdinand Assassinated -(6/28/14) Prince Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was assassinated in Sarajevo. The Archduke had been on a visit to Bosnia. The assassin was a Serbian nationalist whose co-conspirators were in Belgrade. The Serbians wanted to detach Bosnia from the Austro- Hungarian Empire.
1914 Austria Declares War on Serbia -(7/28/14) In the aftermath of the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, Austria made ten demands of Serbia. These included the suppression of all publications critical of Austria-Hungary and the withdrawal of schoolbooks filled with propaganda against the Empire. Army officers, school teachers and government officials holding these views would have to be dismissed. Specific individuals would be targeted for arrest. Finally, an Austrian official would be appointed to monitor the fulfillment of these demands. The Serbians accepted all but the last demand.
1914 Germany Declares War -(8/1/14)When the Russians came to the defense of the Serbs, the Germans had no choice but to go to war to defend their Austrian allies. Their strategy for war against Russia was the Schefffein Plan which called for an initial attack against France, Russia's ally. So, even though Germany had no dispute with France at the time, it still declared war against France.
1914 Germany Invades Belgium -(8/3/14) The German invasion plan for France called for an attack through Belgium, instead of through the heavily defended Franco-German border. Belgium was neutral and its neutrality was protected by treaty with Great Britain. The Germans attacked on August 3rd. The next day, Great Britain declared war on Germany.
1914 Japan Declares War On Germany -(8/15/14) On August 15th, Japan issued Germany an ultimatum demanding that the German fleet be withdrawn from the Far East and that Kiaochow be surrendered within the week. When no answer was forthcoming, Japan declared war on Germany.
1914 US Intervenes In Mexico -(4/21/14)The United States intervened in the Mexican Civil War. The United States intervened decisively on the side of General Obregon. Because of American forces, Mexican President Victoriano Heureto was forced to surrender.
1914 Panama Canal Opened -(6/7/14) After 10 years of work, and at a cost of $366 million, the Panama Canal was completed. The canal decreased the length of the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of the United States by 7,000 miles. Six thousand workers died over the course of the construction of the canal.
1914 Clayton Anti-Trust Act -(10/15/14) The Clayton Anti-Trust Act significantly expanded government powers to act against anti-trust violations. It also made corporate officers personally responsible for violations. In addition, it exempted unions and labor cooperatives from the provisions of the act.
1914 Germany Invades Luxemboug -German forces following the "Shlieffen Plan" invaded Belgium and Luxembourg. They engaged the heavily defended Belgium forces at Liege and overran it. By August 20th the Germans had entered Brussels.
1914 Russians Invade Prussia -The Russians invaded East Prussia, winning their initial engagement against the Germans. At the same time, the Russian Army attacked Galicia, where they faced the Austro-Hungarian army. The Russians were victorious at the Battle of Lemberg and the Austro- Hungarians were forced to withdraw.
1914 Battle of Mons -The Battle of Mons was a series of battles that took place around the River Marne. It lasted seven days and in the course of the battle the British and French broke the German advance. They forced a German withdrawal and thus destroyed the "Shlieffen Plan" that was based on a rapid German victory.
1914 Germany Victors vs. Russians in Battle of Tannenberg -The Germans broke the Russian attack on East Prussia at the battle of Tanneberg. Greatly aided by intercepted Russian communications, the Germans surrounded parts of the Russian army and captured over 100,000 Russian prisoners.
1914 First Battle Marne -The Allies counterattacked against the German forces, with little success. The Germans then attacked the French lines, but their attack failed. As German forces were spread thin, they were forced to withdraw. It soon became clear that this war was not going to be one of sweeping battlefield victories, but a long drawn out struggle.
1914 First Battle of Ypres -The battle lasted almost four weeks, and the Germans came close to breaking through the Allied lines. A last minute counterattack by Allied forces stopped the German breakthrough. Over 50,000 British troops died in the fighting, and almost double that number of Germans died.
1914 Germans Capture Lodz -The Germans attacked the Russian forces in Poland. Battles raged across Poland both in the north, around Warsaw, and in the south, around Cracow. On November 25th, the Germans captured Lodz.

1915
1915 First Zeppelin Bombing of England -On January 15th, the Germans launched the first air raids against London. Using Zeppelins as bombers, the Germans launched numerous raids against Great Britain. While the Zeppelin raids caused damage, their greatest effect was psychological.
1915 Gallipoli Campaign Begins - The Russians were in desperate need of war supplies. The only route to them was blocked by the Turkish blockade of the Dardanelle Straits. The British decided to land troops to capture the heights overlooking the straits. In a campaign that lasted eight months, the British failed to capture the straits, and were forced to withdraw without accomplishing anything.
1915 Second Battle of Ypres -The Allies planned a major counter-offensive. Their attack was stopped in its tracks by the German use of chlorine gas. Although the Allies knew of German plans, they were unprepared, and there troops were forced to withdraw in disarray.
1915 Lusitania Sunk -(5/12/15) Some 128 American citizens were among the 1,200 passengers of the liner Lusitania, sunk by a German submarine. The sinking of the Lusitania poisoned relations between the United States and Germany, but did not immediately result in US intervention in the war.
1915 Vilnius Falls To Germans -On September 19th, the Germans ended their offensive against the Russians by capturing Vilna. Thus, they completed their capture of all of Poland.
1915 Third Battle of Artois -The Third Battle of Artois was the final part of an ambitious Allied plan to force the Germans out of Northern France. The French and the British attacked between Ypres and Arras. The battles lasted throughout the fall. Tens of thousands of people died, but little ground changed hands.
1915 First Transcontinental Telephone Conversation -(1/25/15) Alexander Graham Bell recreated his first telephone conversation in a call between New York and San Francisco.

 

Related Web Resources:

- World War I Links

Specific Resources:  
German Decleration of War on Russia***
Belgium King **
The Fall of Brusselss
Clayton Anti-Trust Act***
Battle of Mons
Details of the Battle
First battle of Marne
Joffrie's Account of the Battle
Battle of Ypres
Photos of the Battles Area
Gallipoli
Details of the Battle
Second Battle of Ypres
Carnegie
RMS Luisitania
The story of Lusitania
American Note to Germany
Battle of Somme
Tom Morgan's Diary

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